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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

this reanalysis in the polar regions. A quantitative knowledge of the flow, storage, and conversion of energy within the climate system has evolved with time as a result of contributions made by improvements in the observing system and by numerical atmospheric reanalyses (e.g., Fasullo and Trenberth 2008 ). In polar regions, the energy budget and its variability are frequently used as a diagnostic for understanding rapidly changing conditions including glacial mass balance and perennial sea ice

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

alternate systems, where a temporal mismatch arises in balance equations between instantaneous analysis fields and forecast variables that are accumulated over some model integration period. The IAU additionally limits model spindown as the GEOS DAS progresses over the 6-h window and allows for the hourly temporal resolution of output variables. The atmospheric moisture budget for MERRA may be written as where Here, W υ is the column-integrated water vapor (precipitable water); W l is the total

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

referred to as the thermal effect and the effect of wind speed as the wind effect. SHF is an energy flux that is directly related to a change in temperature. It is different from latent heat flux (LHF), which is an energy flux associated with the evaporation of water vapor from the ocean surface. In the tropical oceans where the SAT is close to SST, SHF is about one order smaller than LHF. Because of this, LHF is the predominant term in balancing the incoming solar radiation in the tropical oceans; and

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

interest for oceanographers (for e.g., water mass analysis) because (i) unlike fluxes from NWP models SOSE air–sea flux estimates are dynamically consistent with ocean state variables in the sense that the latter result from a dynamical model driven by the former, and (ii) SOSE provides the entire ocean state at all points of a high-resolution grid (⅙° horizontal resolution, with 42 vertical levels). SOSE uses different methodology than the various procedures used to construct the five other products

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

1. Introduction The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the dominant zonally oriented flow of the Southern Ocean. It consists of multiple deep-reaching circumpolar jets, which are geostrophic and coincide with sharp frontal gradients in water properties. These narrow fronts separate the subantarctic water mass to the north from the colder Antarctic water to the south and are thought to be important for Subantarctic Mode Water formation and the meridional overturning circulation ( Nowlin et

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