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Nick Rutter, Don Cline, and Long Li

1. Introduction Snow is an important component of the global water and energy cycles, and in many regions is vital to both health and commerce. Annual maximum snow cover, including supraglacial snow, can exceed 4.3 × 10 6 km 2 (∼55% of land area) in the conterminous United States, 15.5 × 10 6 km 2 (∼74%) in North America ( Frei et al. 1999 ), and 52.5 × 10 6 km 2 (∼35%) globally ( NSIDC 2005 ). Numerical models that accurately simulate snowpack energy and mass-balance processes are

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

snow cover energy balance, there are advantages to applying EC over snow. Over snow, even in complex, heterogeneously vegetated terrain or during difficult and storm conditions, the snow cover EB has been used effectively to simulate the snow cover mass balance with closure typically better than 5% ( Marks et al. 2002 ; Garen and Marks 2005 ). The objective of the research presented in this paper is to use EC measurements of heat and water fluxes from the snow cover below a forest canopy to

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

1. Introduction Water stored in snowpacks and soils in the western United States is particularly important for natural ecosystems, public consumption, and industry because snowmelt accounts for approximately 80% of the soil moisture in semiarid environments in the western United States ( Marks and Winstral 2001 ). The intricate process of snow cover depletion and soil moisture recharge is spatially and physically complex, and an assessment of its behavior is essential for water balance

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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

was measured with 20 levels of E-type thermocouples sampled at 1 Hz at 0.25, 0.5, 1.25, 2.0, 2.75, 3.5, 4.25, 5.0, 5.75, and 6.5 m and every 1.5 m above this level up to 20 m. Fast response data for eddy correlation fluxes and mean winds were collected at seven levels by sonic anemometers for the three components of the wind and sonic (virtual) temperature, four levels of hygrometers for water vapor fluxes, and a single carbon dioxide analyzer. Components of the radiation budget were measured

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

1. Introduction Snow is an integral component of Earth’s atmospheric, hydrologic, and ecologic systems. In many high-latitude and mountainous regions of the world, most of the annual precipitation falls as snow (e.g., Serreze et al. 1999 ). Of the various features that influence Earth’s surface radiation balance, the location and duration of snow cover comprise two of the most important seasonal variables. In the Northern Hemisphere, the mean monthly land area covered by snow ranges from 5

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Glen E. Liston and Christopher A. Hiemstra

budget analysis of soil temperature in the boreal forests of interior Alaska. Water Resour. Res. , 27 , 767 – 781 . 10.1029/91WR00143 Brasnett, B. , 1999 : A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. J. Appl. Meteor. , 38 , 726 – 740 . 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0726:AGAOSD>2.0.CO;2 Brown, R. , Brasnett B. , and Robinson D. , 2003 : Gridded North American monthly snow depth and snow water equivalent for GCM evaluation. Atmos.–Ocean , 41 , 1 – 14 . 10

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John Pomeroy, Chad Ellis, Aled Rowlands, Richard Essery, Janet Hardy, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and Jean Emmanuel Sicart

sensing. J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 228 – 241 . 10.1175/2007JHM870.1 Faria, D. A. , Pomeroy J. W. , and Essery R. L. H. , 2000 : Effect of covariance between ablation and snow water equivalent on depletion of snow-covered area in a forest. Hydrol. Processes , 14 , 2683 – 2695 . 10.1002/1099-1085(20001030)14:15<2683::AID-HYP86>3.0.CO;2-N Gray, D. M. , and Landine P. G. , 1988 : An energy-budget snowmelt model for the Canadian Prairies. Can. J. Earth Sci. , 25 , 1292 – 1303 . 10

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

to measure and model snow distributions is critical to understanding and representing the processes governing energy, water, and biogeochemical cycling in mountain and earth surface systems. The nature of the process interactions creating spatial snow distributions is complex, and the observed variability changes with the scale of observation ( Blöschl 1999 ). Thus, scale is central to any assessment of the spatial distribution of snow. Recent work has shown that spatial snow distributions in a

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

1. Introduction Snow, because of its unique properties such as high albedo and low thermal conductivity, affects land surface radiation budgets and water balance ( Yang et al. 1999 ). Significant gains have been made in snow cover mapping using remotely sensed data in recent decades, but the presence of forests continues to present challenges ( Simpson et al. 1998 ; Hall et al. 1998 ; Hall et al. 2002 ; Dozier and Painter 2004 ). An understanding of the manner in which forest canopies

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