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Wen-Ying Wu, Zong-Liang Yang, and Michael Barlage

below a 2-m soil column. The groundwater storage budget is expressed as the water balance, (A1) d W d t = Q − R sb , where W is the groundwater storage, Q is the groundwater recharge, and R sb is the subsurface runoff or the discharge from the aquifer. The groundwater recharge Q is based on Darcy’s law: (A2) Q = − K − z ∇ − ( f mic φ bot − z bot ) z ∇ − z bot , where K is the hydraulic conductivity of the bottom soil layer, f mic is the fraction of micropore content in the bottom soil

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Anthony M. DeAngelis, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Yehui Chang, and Jelena Marshak

. 43, 145 pp., https://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/pubs/docs/Bosilovich803.pdf . Bosilovich , M. G. , F. R. Robertson , L. Takacs , A. Molod , and D. Mocko , 2017 : Atmospheric water balance and variability in the MERRA-2 reanalysis . J. Climate , 30 , 1177 – 1196 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0338.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0338.1 Burnash , R. J. C. , 1995 : The NWS river forecast system—Catchment modeling. Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology , V. P. Singh, Ed., Water Resources

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Keyhan Gavahi, Peyman Abbaszadeh, Hamid Moradkhani, Xiwu Zhan, and Christopher Hain

) techniques with these models has been highly recommended because it improves the accuracy of water and energy balance computations and increases the model’s predictive skills ( Reichle et al. 2014 ; Sawada et al. 2015 ; Seo et al. 2003 ). Earth system DA seeks to exploit real-time observations for more accurate hydrologic forecasts ( Kumar et al. 2014 ; Reichle et al. 2014 ). DA aims at merging current and past observations with a dynamical model, using the model’s prognostic equations to estimate

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David M. Mocko, Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and Shugong Wang

1. Introduction Estimates of terrestrial water budget components from land surface models (LSMs) are routinely used in drought monitoring and forecasting environments (e.g., Mo et al. 2011 ; Houborg et al. 2012 ; Hao et al. 2014 ; Sheffield et al. 2014 ). In particular, Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDASs), which employ LSMs forced with observed meteorology, are used for operational drought monitoring at continental and global scales. The North American Land Data Assimilation System

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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

separate effects of irrigation on SM. Estimating water budgets such as runoff and evapotranspiration (ET) based on water balance equation. Examining crop water use efficiency (WUE), which is defined as the amount of carbon assimilated as biomass or grain produced per unit of water used by the crop. The NN SM product can be used to estimate ET and thus could be used for estimating WUE. Evaluating crop growth and predicting food production in rain-fed region, in light of the direct and intrinsic

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