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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

explored by Chuang et al. (1997) . We note that in AM3, the frequency of occurrence of the lower bound is 98%. Thus, the activation behaves essentially as if the variance were fixed. The frequency of occurrence is 95% when the minimum is reduced to 0.2 m s −1 (configuration S1 below). One of the motivations for this work is to explore the impact of the minimum velocity variance in AM3. For large-scale clouds, the source term in the cloud drop number budget Eq. (4) is formulated as in Ming et al

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

. Serreze , and J. Stroeve , 2008 : The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models . Climate Dyn. , 34 , 185 – 200 , doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4 . Huang , R. X. , 1993 : Real freshwater flux as a natural boundary condition for the salinity balance and thermohaline circulation forced by evaporation and precipitation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 23 , 2428 – 2446 . Hurrell , J. , J. Hack , D. Shea , J. Caron , and J. Rosinski

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

. With the coarser plume resolution, entrainment coefficients have been increased relative to those in Donner (1993) by a factor of 1.65. Liquid/frozen-water static energy (conservative without precipitation) is used instead of temperature for plume thermodynamics. Aspects of the water budget in deep convective systems related to R m , precipitation from mesoscale updrafts; E me , condensate transfer from mesoscale updrafts to large-scale stratiform clouds (cf. section 3d ); C mu , condensation

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