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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

AGL. Fig . 16. As in Fig. 14 , but for heating rates at 7 km AGL. b. Heat balance and error estimation Without direct measurements of cloud heating, it can be difficult to validate the heating retrievals. Retrievals can be compared against heating budgets derived from intensive sounding networks associated with field campaigns, but these tend to be sporadic and there can be issues with sufficient satellite sampling within the sounding array. In the past, self-consistency checks have also been

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

. 2016 ). In this study, with a similar approach, we have constructed a simplified lookup table by using the radar simulation package named QuickBeam ( Haynes et al. 2007 ). In consideration of the remote sensing properties of DCC, especially the DFR profiles in tropics, we used the QuickBeam to compute unattenuated radar reflectivity of volume with given ice water content (IWC) and mean diameter of spherical ice particles D m . Brief setups of the simulation are depicted here with further details

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