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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

H 2 O m −2 yr −1 ), both of which are strongly regulated by stomatal aperture. WUE S focuses on the stand-level carbon cycle and water budget and is calculated as follows: where NPP is net primary production (g C m −2 yr −1 ) and AET is actual evapotranspiration, including transpiration and surface evaporation (kg H 2 O m −2 yr −1 ). NPP is an important ecosystem index representing vegetation growth activity, biogeochemical cycles, and ecosystem services such as food and fiber supply

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

). Figure 4 shows estimates of terms of these budgets, as well as snowpack water balance and components of evapotranspiration. The range of the annual cycle and interannual variability is also shown. Intermodel variability was used as a measure of uncertainty caused by the variations among parameterizations in LSMs. Dirmeyer et al. (2006) also presented a table listing every variable in the MMA and a quantification of the model-based uncertainties associated with them. Fig . 4. Global mean land

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

. 2010 ) ( Fig. 1 ). Fig . 1. Region of study: relief, areas with natural vegetation cover (for the year 2000; Vreugdenhil et al. 2002 ), watershed boundaries, and country limits (nonnatural areas comprise urban, agriculture, and livestock uses). This and subsequent maps are based on the Mollweide projection. b. Modeling approach MAPSS is an equilibrium biogeography model that simulates the long-term average water balance and potential vegetation, given an average climate, based on water and energy

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

. Conclusions The annual CO 2 exchange rates in our study were comparable with those of other wetland ecosystems obtained using the eddy covariance technique and the combined method of internal gas pressures and flow measurements and harvesting. The annual CO 2 budget was found to be 64.2 ± 19.2 g C m −2 yr −1 , indicating that the wetland ecosystem behaved as a CO 2 sink for the entire year. The CO 2 balance of P. australis –dominated wetland was strongly affected not by the output of CO 2 through

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

: Lessons from cross-scale studies of water and carbon cycles in the Gwangneung forest catchment in a complex landscape of Monsoon Korea . Korean J. Agric. For. Meteor. , 9 , 149 – 160 . Lee, D. , Kim J. , Lee K. S. , and Kim S. , 2010 : Partitioning of catchment water budget and its implications for ecosystem carbon exchange . Biogeosciences , 7 , 1903 – 1914 . Leuning, R. , Cleugh H. A. , Zegelin S. J. , and Hughes D. , 2005 : Carbon and water fluxes over a temperate eucalyptus

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