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F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, P. H. Austin, and F. Chen

1. Introduction Water vapor variability was the main focus of the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002), which took place in May–June 2002 over the southern Great Plains of the United States ( Weckwerth et al. 2004 ). This field project gathered together most of the techniques for measuring water vapor. We address water vapor variability at the mesoscale (scales larger than thermals, ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers). Comparatively few investigations have considered this

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Diane Strassberg, Margaret A. LeMone, Thomas T. Warner, and Joseph G. Alfieri

in the standard way ( Schotanus et al. 1983) . Half-hour averaged temperature, mixing ratio, and pressure were used to convert the temperature and water vapor fluxes to H and LE. Because of problems with some of the water vapor sensors, we used the LE values found as a residual from the surface energy balance. The resulting surface fluxes were within 10%–15% of the aircraft fluxes extrapolated to the surface ( LeMone et al. 2007a ). 4. Data analysis In (3) , we use wind speed and momentum

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Robert J. Conzemius and Evgeni Fedorovich

wind speed also changes by 20 m s −1 in less than 1 km. Note that in this particular case, unlike in Conzemius and Fedorovich (2006a) , most of the shear was contained in the ageostrophic component of the wind. The initial LES virtual potential temperature profile was taken from AERIBAGO temperature and water vapor data. The AERI data were compared with AMA and DDC 1200 UTC soundings (see Fig. 3 ) and found to be reasonably consistent with those data over most of the 4-km depth of the LES domain

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

available for 20 and 22 June, but it could be slightly low. On days with bad (unrealistically low) LE, sonic temperature corrections for water vapor effects are also too low, leading to H overestimates of up to 10%–15% ( LeMone et al. 2007a ). When the humidity instruments worked, these authors estimate that the surface energy budget balances to within ∼8%–20% of R net (W m −2 ), the net radiation. No fluxes are available at site 7 on 30 May. For soil moisture, we use the Campbell Scientific CS-615

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Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Dev Niyogi

water and energy balance processes. J. Geophys. Res. , 102 , D4 . 4303 – 4324 . Peters-Lidard , C. D. , E. Blackburn , X. Liang , and E. F. Wood , 1998 : The effect of soil thermal conductivity parameterization on surface energy fluxes and temperatures. J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1209 – 1224 . Pielke , R. A. , T. J. Lee , J. H. Copeland , J. L. Eastman , C. L. Ziegler , and C. A. Finley , 1997 : Use of USGS-provided data to improve weather and climate simulations

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Monica Górska, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Margaret A. LeMone, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

gathered during IHOP_2002, which took place over the U.S. southern Great Plains in May and June 2002. The aim of IHOP_2002 was to realize gains in the prediction of convective precipitation in numerical weather prediction models by improving the water vapor measurements and the representation of the water vapor evolution. An overview of this project and documentation of its instruments can be found in Weckwerth et al. (2004) . Within the framework of IHOP_2002, LeMone et al. (2007a) studied the

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