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Jörn Callies and Raffaele Ferrari

becoming increasingly clear, however, that lateral exchanges contribute crucially to the dynamical balances of the mixed layer. Baroclinic instability in the mixed layer, one such agent of lateral exchange, can achieve large vertical buoyancy fluxes by laterally sliding light over dense water, tending to restratify the mixed layer (e.g., Spall 1995 ; Haine and Marshall 1998 ; Boccaletti et al. 2007 ; Fox-Kemper et al. 2008 ). This restratification modifies the surface properties and thereby feeds

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Leif N. Thomas, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Craig M. Lee, Jody M. Klymak, and Andrey Shcherbina

PV is not conserved and changes sign over time (e.g., Figs. 7b , 8c ). Furthermore in the latter phase of the record, the downstream shear asymptotes toward, rather than oscillates about, the thermal wind balance, suggesting that any sheared inertial motions that were present were damped ( Fig. 10 ). These differences from the inviscid, adiabatic theory are likely attributable to SI that drives turbulence and entrains high PV water from the pycnocline into the boundary layer. A detailed study

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Daniel B. Whitt and Leif N. Thomas

effects in certain regions of the flow. However, Klein et al. (2004a) only considered low Rossby number geostrophic flows, and therefore the results may not generalize to situations where the Rossby number is of order one. The work is further motivated by recent observations collected as part of the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Mode Water Dynamics Experiment ( ) and the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence (LatMix) initiative, which show that the

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Daniel Mukiibi, Gualtiero Badin, and Nuno Serra

budgets of buoyancy, mass, and other tracers, for example, facilitating the supply of nutrients and gases to the euphotic layers of the ocean thereby enhancing primary production in the ocean interior ( Lévy et al. 2001 ). Frontal dynamics can be important also for the transformation of water masses ( Thomas and Joyce 2010 ; Badin et al. 2010 , 2013 ; Thomas et al. 2013 ). Further, MLIs might be able to penetrate in the underlying pycnocline where they might be important for the lateral mixing of

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Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Miles A. Sundermeyer, and M.-Pascale Lelong

1. Introduction Lateral mixing, often parameterized by lateral diffusivity, can be enhanced by a variety of processes. Among these is the geostrophic adjustment of multiple and sporadic patches of well-mixed water ( Sundermeyer et al. 2005 ). Geostrophic adjustment transforms mixed patches into vortices ( McWilliams 1988 ) that then stir the surrounding fluid. When vortices and internal waves coexist, the vortices are subject to internal wave shear and strain. Once the shear exceeds a certain

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