Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for :

  • Water budget/balance x
  • North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

Caribbean LLJ ( Amador 1998 ; Amador and Magaña 1999 ). This jet then splits into two branches, with the northward branch turning northward to cross over the Yucatan Peninsula and connecting with the Great Plains LLJ. While many studies have investigated the relationship between the Great Plains LLJ and precipitation over the United States, there are no previous studies that look at how the water budget of the IAS varies on interannual time scales, or how this variability is related to SST and

Full access
Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

advantage of the gauge station data, the gridding is done year by year for each region because of the discontinuous gauge records for many stations. For each year, we only used stations with more than 50 days of nonmissing data. All other gridding steps are as described in Maurer et al. (2002) . b. Land surface characteristics The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model is a macroscale hydrology model ( Liang et al. 1994 , 1996 ) that balances both surface energy and water over a grid

Full access
Christopher J. Watts, Russell L. Scott, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Julio C. Rodriguez, John H. Prueger, William P. Kustas, and Michael Douglas

, usually chosen to be between 10 min and 1 h. The other principal components of the surface energy balance, net radiation, and soil heat flux were also measured. The sensors for net radiation, air temperature, and water vapor were installed several meters above the canopy at each site and so the measured surface fluxes are representative of the exchange of radiation, heat, and water vapor between the soil–vegetation complex and the atmosphere. The choice of instrumentation was not uniform for all sites

Full access
Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

Depression Blas to the south and southwest of the Altair and an upper-level trough to the northeast of the Gulf of California (GoC) ( Johnson et al. 2007 ). Outflow from Blas helped delay the northward migration of the climatological westerly jet, but after 17 July the upper-level winds at the location of the Altair were easterly and stayed that way, signifying an established summer monsoon. The sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor path (WVP) fields at the onset of the ship cruise are shown

Full access
David J. Gochis, Christopher J. Watts, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, and Julio Cesar-Rodriguez

physiography are important for characterizing the overall monsoon climate, additional information on rainfall intensity is essential for improved understanding of the coupled land–atmosphere hydrological cycle. Detailed information on the frequency and intensity structures of rainfall is critical to developing reliable hydrologic predictions, diagnosing realistic precipitation structures that can be the basis of closing regional water budgets, developing precipitation downscaling procedures, improving

Full access
Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

are a critical portion of the annual water budget and lead to significant responses at the land surface. Increases in soil moisture, for example, induce flooding in ephemeral rivers (e.g., Gochis et al. 2006 ) and allow the greening of a subtropical ecosystem (e.g., Salinas-Zavala et al. 2002 ). Therefore, an outstanding question concerns the potential for a soil moisture–vegetation–rainfall feedback mechanism to exist in the mountainous region and play a role in sustaining monsoon convection

Full access
Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 343 – 360 . Randall , D. A. , and D. A. Dazlich , and Harshvardhan , 1991 : Diurnal variability of the hydrological cycle in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 40 – 62 . Rasmusson , E. M. , 1967 : Atmospheric water vapor transport and the water balance of North America: Part I. Characteristics of the water vapor flux field. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 95 , 403 – 426 . Reynolds , R. W. , N. A. Rayner , T. M. Smith , D. C. Stokes , and W

Full access
Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

radiation data and humidity are derived using algorithms described in Maurer et al. (2002) based on surface air temperature. Surface wind is taken from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Surface skin temperature T s , S m in three vertical layers, and SWE are derived from the VIC land surface model, which is designed both for off-line, or stand-alone use to simulate the water and energy budgets of

Full access