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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

. 1997 ), designed to measure water vapor and aerosols along their flight transects, and the Wyoming King Air with a compact Raman lidar. Time–height sections from the ground-based upward pointing profilers captured horizontal/vertical motion, moisture, and temperature. Pre- and postbore environments were sampled with atmospheric soundings and the Kansas Mesonet recorded changes in temperature, pressure, and winds. It required a lot of planning and a little luck, but the 10–11 July 2015 IOP and other

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

, as the jet weakens, the vertical vorticity should increase (decrease) to the east (west) of the jet core, 2 and that vertical motions “are developed to balance” those tendencies. However, a balance concept may not be appropriate for Great Plains LLJs (no justification was given), and the authors’ vertical vorticity budget analysis merely indicates that diurnal changes in the vertical vorticity over the scale of their analysis domain are largely due to the stretching of Earth vorticity

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David J. Bodine and Kristen L. Rasmussen

to the total rainfall budget, MCSs also produce extreme rainfall events. Schumacher and Johnson (2005) found that MCSs caused 65% of extreme rainfall events east of the Rocky Mountains, and these events often occurred with MCSs characterized by training or back building convection. MCSs are responsible for a large proportion of severe wind events (e.g., Johns 1993 ; Smith et al. 2013 ), and approximately 20% of tornado reports ( Trapp et al. 2005 ). The severe weather hazards and rainfall

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