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Samson M. Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Charlotte Demott, Bryce Harrop, Jian Lu, and Min-Seop Ahn

precipitation and atmospheric moisture content is related to the constraint imposed by the atmospheric radiative cooling due to the increased temperature and humidity, which limits the precipitation change through the global energy and water balances ( Allen and Ingram 2002 ; Pendergrass and Hartmann 2014 ). Regional differences of the precipitation response are much less clear, particularly over the tropics, where spatial and temporal shifts related to dynamic and thermodynamic responses to warming can

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

the best of our knowledge, the first study to examine the water vapor budget of SMDs was Yoon and Chen (2005) . They found that the leading balance in SMDs involves import of moisture through convergence and loss of moisture through condensation and precipitation. Their study, however, only considered the Eulerian temporal tendency in moisture over a limited domain near the center of the vortex. Thus, their study does not take into account the propagation of the moisture anomalies. However

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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

exclude atypical conditions. After applying the filter criteria, the dataset contained between 83 days at Amplero (with one year of data) and 973 days at Blodgett (spanning 7 years of data), see Table 3 . The energy balance requires that the observed heat fluxes should be balanced by the net radiation budget. However, most eddy covariance measurement sites show a systematic underestimation of the turbulent heat fluxes ( Foken 2008 ; Stoy et al. 2013 ) and an energy balance correction is often

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

. Climate , 30 , 3743 – 3769 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0765.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0765.1 Wang , T. , S. Wong , and E. J. Fetzer , 2015 : Cloud regime evolution in the Indian monsoon intraseasonal oscillation: Connection to large-scale dynamical conditions and the atmospheric water budget . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 9465 – 9472 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066353 . 10.1002/2015GL066353 Wong , S. , E. J. Fetzer , B. Tian , B. Lambrigtsen , and H. Ye , 2011

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

prediction and global climate models ( Stephens et al. 2015 ). In particular, GEWEX-PROES is intended to exploit multiple satellite observations to diagnose the processes relevant to water and energy balances and thereby to advance the models at a fundamental level. The aims of GEWEX-PROES are to better understand Earth’s energy and water cycles, diagnose reasons for model bias in simulating these cycles, and facilitate improved representation of processes underlying the energy and water cycles in models

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Motoki Nagura, J. P. McCreary, and H. Annamalai

. Murty , 1986 : Watermass structure in the western Indian Ocean—Part II: The spreading and transformation of the Persian Gulf water . Mausam , 37 , 179 – 186 . Rao , R. R. , and R. Sivakumar , 2003 : Seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and salt budget of the mixed layer of the north Indian Ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 3009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000907 . Rochford , D. J. , 1964 : Salinity maxima in the upper 1000 metres of the north Indian Ocean . Aust. J. Mar

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Leo J. Donner, Charles J. Seman, Ming Zhao, Huan Guo, and Yi Ming

behind this persistent problem was attributed to the ubiquitous presence of supercooled water in Southern Hemisphere (SH) clouds ( Morrison et al. 2011 ) which models have problems maintaining ( Kay et al. 2016 ). By forcing their model to maintain liquid in clouds for temperatures below freezing, Kay et al. (2016) could correct the surface absorption issue. However, while an advanced treatment of boundary layer clouds in another model improved Southern Hemisphere cloud liquid amounts, its cloud

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

1. Introduction Surface climate over land is influenced by the physical interactions taking place between the land surface and the overlying atmosphere. The land radiative and physical properties, such as albedo and water availability, are impacted by atmospheric conditions; in turn, land surface variations affect the radiative, moisture, heat, and momentum fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere, impacting the overlying atmosphere and eventually regulating local climate. These

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Stephanie A. Henderson, Eric D. Maloney, and Seok-Woo Son

Kimoto (2000) . The anomalous MJO apparent heat source Q 1 of each GCM is used to force the LBM. Formulated by Yanai et al. (1973) , Q 1 includes heating associated with radiation, latent heat release due to phase changes of water, and the vertical eddy transport of sensible heat. The three-dimensional Q 1 is derived as a residual from the dry static energy s budget, where s = c p T + gz , T is the temperature, c p is the specific heat capacity of air at a constant pressure, g is

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