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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Yi Jin, Daniel Hodyss, and Joshua H. Cossuth

thermodynamic variable in the equations of motion as density potential temperature θ ρ . Each is defined: where p ref is 1000 hPa, R d is the dry gas constant, c p is the heat capacity of dry air, ε is the ratio of the gas constants, and each r is a mixing ratio of a different species of water (vapor, cloud, rain, snow, ice, and graupel). The derivation found in appendix B of Ryglicki (2015) for the linearized thermal wind balance equations can be generalized to yield the two balance

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

evolution during its record-setting rapid intensification and overwater weakening. Combining new observational capabilities from high-density dropsondes and airborne Doppler radar data, we calculate the full-tropospheric, dry axisymmetric Ertel’s potential vorticity (PV; Ertel 1942 ) within the inner-core region of Patricia without relying on balance assumptions. We utilize these unprecedented observations of PV to elucidate the mesoscale processes contributing Patricia’s rapid intensity changes, and

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

work serves as a numerical model-based companion to Part I and as a follow-up to Ryglicki et al. (2018b , hereafter Part II ). In the satellite observations presented in Part I , they noted two key identifying features: tilt-modulated convective asymmetries (TCA), which appear prior to RI and with a period of 4–8 h and upper-level arcs, which appear in the water vapor (WV) satellite imagery. Part II demonstrated that these TCAs are associated with the nutation 1 of the tilt of the vortex

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David R. Ryglicki, Joshua H. Cossuth, Daniel Hodyss, and James D. Doyle

this movement, the tilt of the midlevel vortex causes a structural change in the thermodynamic profile of the vortex (“D”). As a result of a tilting vortex, there is a thermal wind balance–induced cold anomaly downtilt ( Jones 1995 ); thus, all convective towers that grow under and into this anomaly while the TC is tilted are buoyant. In addition to the movement of the tilt, crescent-shaped arc clouds become evident in water vapor imagery (“E”). Eventually, RI occurs. Fig . 1. Schematic of the

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

-level static stability and cold-point tropopause structure throughout Patricia’s RI. The cold-point tropopause is defined as the level of minimum temperature in a sounding ( Highwood and Hoskins 1998 ). This tropopause definition is widely used in the tropics because the cold-point temperature influences the exchange of ozone and water vapor between the troposphere and stratosphere ( Mote et al. 1996 ), which has important climatological implications ( Holton et al. 1995 ). Although few papers have

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1559:NROAVT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1559:NROAVT>2.0.CO;2 Halverson , J. B. , J. Simpson , G. Heymsfield , H. Pierce , T. Hock , and L. Ritchie , 2006 : Warm core structure of Hurricane Erin diagnosed from high altitude dropsondes during CAMEX-4 . J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 309 – 324 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3596.1 . 10.1175/JAS3596.1 Hawkins , H. F. , and D. T. Rubsam , 1968 : Hurricane Hilda, 1964. II: Structure and budgets of the hurricane on October 1, 1964 . Mon. Wea. Rev

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