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Joël Arnault and Frank Roux

well as the model-derived brightness temperature in the water vapor channel 6 (7.3 μ m) of Meteosat-9 ( Saunders et al. 2005 ; Chaboureau et al. 2000 , 2002 ). The three-dimensional variables are interpolated from the Méso-NH original grid to constant altitude levels to compute the budgets of potential and kinetic energy. 3. Qualitative analysis The Hovmöller diagram computed with Meteosat-9 brightness temperature in the water vapor channel 6 (7.3 μ m) ( Fig. 2a ) shows that the pre

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Wallace Hogsett and Da-Lin Zhang

via pressure adjustment to the gradient–wind balance, and the location and quantity of such energy transformations dictate the intensification rate of TCs. Several observational and modeling studies have been performed to understand the KE production in relation to LE in TCs. Frank (1977) used composites of rawinsondes to calculate the KE and moist static energy budgets of TCs and showed how TCs import KE from their environment and produce most KE in the near-surface layer. McBride (1981

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds at a given time cover about 20% of tropical latitudes and contribute significantly to regional and global radiation budgets ( Rossow and Schiffer 1999 ). Optically thick tropical cirrus are produced primarily through deep convection and generate as much as 25% of the earth’s net cloud radiative forcing ( Hartmann et al. 1992 ). The primary impact of thin versus thick cirrus is on the shortwave energy budget, and the albedo of these ice clouds depends on their

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

tests were also carried out with different model physics or initial conditions, which are described in detail in Part II . b. Flux form of the vorticity budget Following Haynes and McIntyre (1987) , Tory and Montgomery (2008) , and Raymond et al. (1998) , the flux form of the vorticity equation in the isobaric coordinates can be written as where the absolute vorticity is defined as ω is pressure vertical velocity, and according to DMW09 the wave relative flow is where i is the unit vector

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

turn can influence cloud microphysics, latent heat release, vertical transport and convection development, and precipitation. Fields of water vapor concentration are a key component for understanding processes of precipitation, evaporation, and latent heat release in cloud systems. The lack of adequate and accurate moisture measurements with sufficient vertical and horizontal resolutions limits the ability of most numerical models to represent these processes. Krishnamurti et al. (1994) found

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Wei Zhong, Da-Lin Zhang, and Han-Cheng Lu

, set to either 1 or 0, is used herein to trace the effect of the radial advection of the mean height by perturbation flows. We assume that the basic state is in gradient wind balance; that is, A concise linearized form of Eq. (2) , including both the rotational and divergent components of wave motions, is the shallow-water PV conservation equation, where d / dt = ∂/∂ t + Ω∂/∂ λ + u ∂/∂ r and ζ ′ = ∂ rυ ′/ r ∂ r − ∂ u ′/ r ∂ λ is the vertical component of the perturbation relative

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

-D. Chou , and K. Pickering , 1993 : Heating, moisture, and water budgets of tropical and midlatitude squall lines: Comparisons and sensitivity to longwave radiation. J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 673 – 690 . Wang , Z. , M. T. Montgomery , and T. J. Dunkerton , 2009 : A dynamically based method for forecasting tropical cyclogenesis location in the Atlantic sector using global model products. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L03801 . doi:10.1029/2008GL035586 . Wang , Z. , M. T. Montgomery

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

. Downward thermal emissions from dust were also observed to increase owing to the larger dust particle sizes ( Slingo et al. 2006 ). Haywood et al. (2005) compared the OLR from the Met Office unified operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with that determined from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instrument onboard Meteosat-7 . By including observation-based optical properties of mineral dust in the radiative transfer calculations, Haywood et al. suggested that dust DRE LW can be

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

barotropic framework (e.g., Holland and Dietachmayer 1993 ; Prieto et al. 2003 ; Kuo et al. 2008 ), the merging process in the present case is characterized by sharp increases in the surface heat fluxes, the low-level convergence, latent heat release (and upward motion), the low to midtropospheric potential vorticity (PV), surface pressure fall, and the rapid growth of cyclonic vorticity in the lower troposphere. Our PV budget calculations in Part II show two different episodes of the storm

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Robert Cifelli, Timothy Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, Nick Guy, Edward J. Zipser, Jon Zawislak, and Robert Holzworth

the tropical Atlantic. J. Climate , 20 , 5041 – 5060 . Gamache , J. F. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1983 : Water budget of a mesoscale convective system in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 1835 – 1850 . Geerts , B. , and T. Dejene , 2005 : Regional and diurnal variability of the vertical structure of precipitation systems in Africa based on spaceborne radar data. J. Climate , 18 , 893 – 916 . Gu , G. , R. F. Adler , G. J. Huffman , and S. Curtis , 2004 : African

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