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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

1. Introduction Changes are occurring to high-latitude environments with further alteration likely under several global change scenarios. Responses in the arctic environment may include alterations to the landscape and in water fluxes and stores. While conceptual water balance models have proved useful in assessing contemporary hydrological conditions and in modeling future states, general circulation models have not proved accurate enough to close water budgets in hydrological applications

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

Arctic environmental system and interactions among different components, especially in the face of potential climatic change. However, consistent observations of components of the terrestrial water budget are routinely unavailable. While some terms of the surface water balance are reasonably well observed [precipitation (PRC) and runoff in particular], other terms including evapotranspiration and soil moisture are generally not directly observed. Many of these variables are difficult to measure

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

-element approach to determining heat flow in soils. This model is appropriate for both permafrost and nonpermafrost soils. The STM receives monthly gridded estimates of air temperature, soil moisture, and snowpack from TEM. The monthly snowpack estimates are a function of elevation as well as monthly precipitation and monthly air temperature, and have a subsequent influence on soil moisture in the water balance model of TEM ( Vörösmarty et al. 1989 ). The snowpack, air temperature, and soil moisture data are

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T. Scott Rupp, Xi Chen, Mark Olson, and A. David McGuire

. Kimball , and W. Wu . 2006 . Water budget closure over the western Arctic and Yukon River Basin: A model intercomparison. Earth Interactions submitted . Lamontagne , S. , R. Carnignan , P. D’Arcy , Y. T. Prairie , and D. Pare . 2000 . Element export in runoff from eastern Canadian boreal shield drainage basins following forest harvesting and wildfires. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57 : (Suppl. 2) . 118 – 128 . Lavorel , S. , M. D. Flannigan , E. F. Lambin , and M. C

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