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Richard Harding, Martin Best, Eleanor Blyth, Stefan Hagemann, Pavel Kabat, Lena M. Tallaksen, Tanya Warnaars, David Wiberg, Graham P. Weedon, Henny van Lanen, Fulco Ludwig, and Ingjerd Haddeland

describing components of the global water cycle can be grouped into land surface hydrology models (LSMs), global hydrological models (GHMs), and river basin hydrological models (RBHMs). LSMs have their origins in the land surface descriptions within climate models. Generally these are based on the energy balance at the land surface and describe the vertical exchanges of heat, water, and, sometimes, carbon very well. More recently they have incorporated representations of lateral transfers of water

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Stefan Hagemann, Cui Chen, Jan O. Haerter, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, and Claudio Piani

seasonal phenology of natural and agricultural vegetation are simulated based on long-term average climate. The model distinguishes two soil layers with fixed thickness (upper, 50 cm; lower, 100 cm). Soil moisture of each layer is updated daily, according to the balance between the amount of water infiltrating into the soil (throughfall minus surface runoff) and that removed from the soil layers through subsurface runoff, percolation, soil evaporation, and plant transpiration. Evapotranspiration is

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

advantageous since (i) river flow represents an integration of upstream catchment processes and therefore indicates the state of the surface water budget over large areas, and therefore (ii) river flow is useful for validating hydrology in large-scale models as it is relatively easy to measure on the ground, (iii) it enables the time lag between runoff generation and outflow to the ocean to be reproduced, and (iv) river flow is important for a realistic thermohaline circulation in a coupled atmosphere

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Kerstin Stahl, Lena M. Tallaksen, Lukas Gudmundsson, and Jens H. Christensen

mimic subgrid-scale partial saturation of the soil and allows for a fraction of water from the soil water budget to become runoff even if the cell’s bucket is not entirely filled. Drainage occurs independent of the water input and depends on soil water content. Conceptually, the processes modeled at the grid cell level are hence very similar to many lumped catchment-scale hydrological models that are used in small basins that do not require channel routing. Applications of the ECHAM5/HIRHAM5 land

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G. P. Weedon, S. Gomes, P. Viterbo, W. J. Shuttleworth, E. Blyth, H. Österle, J. C. Adam, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, and M. Best

al. 2011 ). LSMs typically estimate actual evaporation by evaluating the energy balance at the subdaily time scale, whereas GHMs typically require estimates of daily-average “potential” evapotranspiration and then assess actual evaporation by adjusting this estimate to allow for the water availability. In this paper an assessment is made of changes in global twentieth-century potential evaporation independent of any specific LSM or GHM as estimated via the WFD themselves. Consideration is also

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