Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 54 items for :

  • Water budget/balance x
  • Meteorological Monographs x
  • All content x
Clear All
Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

combination of open water, bare soil, and canopy surface evaporation and transpiration. Theoretically, ET represents a turbulent flux of water vapor from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere resulting from the phase change of liquid water. This phase change means that ET is coupled to the surface energy balance via the latent heat of vaporization, and therefore the transfer of energy from the surface to the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration is also referred to as the latent heat flux. If the phase change

Full access
J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

of aerosol. A perturbation in the surface radiation balance of the sea ice results in a change in sea ice characteristics (i.e., ice thickness and areal distribution, surface temperature and surface albedo). These changes in sea ice characteristics, particularly the surface temperature and fraction of open water, will modify fluxes of radiation and surface sensible and latent heat, which will modify the atmospheric temperature, humidity, and dynamics. Modifications to the atmospheric

Full access
Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

anvil clouds in turn further affects convection ( Fu et al. 1995 ; Stephens et al. 2008 ). Furthermore, these anvil clouds have a tremendous impact on the earth’s radiative energy budget climatologically ( Randall et al. 1989 ; Ramanathan and Collins 1991 ). The amount of detrained cloud liquid water and ice strongly depends on the strength of convective updrafts and the content of cloud water and ice within them. The latter is determined by convective microphysical processes. Part of the

Full access
Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

the key elements of Earth’s energy budget ( Trenberth et al. 2009 ). While satellites provide measurements of the global distribution of reflected and emitted broadband fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), less information is available on the radiative budget at the surface and the vertical distribution of absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Key goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are to quantify the radiative energy balance profile in Earth’s atmosphere, to

Full access
Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

instrument systems: the energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) and the eddy correlation flux measurement (ECOR). The EBBR systems estimate the fluxes based on measurements of near-surface temperature and humidity gradients and the surface energy balance [net radiation plus soil heat flux; e.g., Stull (1988) ]. One advantage of the EBBR system is that the surface energy budget is, by definition, closed. EBBR systems were installed first at the SGP site, followed by the addition of ECOR systems. The ECOR

Full access
J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

of atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget is the representation of clouds; for GCMs, TOA balance is often gotten by tuning models’ TOA radiative fluxes toward observations through quantities such as cloud cover, cloud particle effective radius, and cloud mass, which have been largely unconstrained because of the lack of observations for cloud water mass and particle size. This is especially the case for the vertical structure information of cloud water mass leaving too many degrees of

Full access
S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

budget. b. Hydrological cycle The hydrological cycle describes the circulation of water throughout the Earth system. A major source of atmospheric water vapor is evaporation from the oceans; evapotranspiration from the ground surface and plants is also a key component. Water vapor comprises only 1%–4% (by volume) of the atmosphere, yet it plays a critical role in weather and in Earth’s energy balance. Water vapor absorbs and radiates electromagnetic radiation in a broad range of spectral bands that

Full access

magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. However, cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks are not understood at the levels needed for reliable climate prediction. The ARM Program will contribute to the DOE goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in general circulation models. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. Understanding cloud properties and how to predict

Full access
Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

static energy tendency. Under such conditions, a class of balanced disturbances called moisture modes has been hypothesized to exist ( Sobel et al. 2001 ; Raymond 2001 ; Majda and Klein 2003 ; Maloney et al. 2010 ), in which gravity wave adjustment plays no role in propagation, and understanding the moisture (or MSE) budget is essential to understanding the basic maintenance and propagation of the modes. This former point distinguishes moisture modes from disturbances of equatorial shallow-water

Full access
Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

majority of these IOPs were conducted at SGP. At the ARM TWP and NSA sites, coordinated balloon sounding measurements are more difficult to make; hence, only one and two IOPs have been conducted at these sites, respectively. ARM also deployed many surface stations at its sites, including various radiometers and surface flux stations. The stations are intended to characterize the water and energy budgets within the domain represented by a GCM grid box. The domain-averaged fluxes also are used in the

Full access