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Rodrigo Fernandez and Nicolas Zegre

). The water balance describes the process by which water is partitioned across the landscape. According to water balance, the input volume from P is partitioned into evapotranspiration, runoff, and storage ( Black 1997 ; Milly 1994 ). From the concept of water balance, water available is the remnant of precipitation in the land surface after evapotranspiration has taken place. Evapotranspiration is dependent on the availability of water and the atmospheric water demand ( Budyko 1974 ; Roderick

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Ryann A. Wakefield, Jeffrey B. Basara, Jason C. Furtado, Bradley G. Illston, Craig. R. Ferguson, and Petra M. Klein

recommended product lifetime, even if no problems are detected ( McPherson et al. 2007 ). Observations from the mesonet have been extensively validated ( Scott et al. 2013 ) to ensure that all observations are of research quality. One limitation arises because of site placement within areas of uniform low-growing vegetation ( McPherson et al. 2007 ) as observations may not be representative of those over other land-cover types. 1) Mesonet soil moisture Fractional water index (FWI) is a normalized

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C. P. Kim and J. N. M. Stricker

MAY 1996 KIM AND STRICKER 749Consistency of Modeling the Water Budget over Long Time Series: Comparison of Simple Parameterizations and a Physically Based Model C. P. KhM AND J. N. M. STRICKERDepartment of Water Resources, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, the Netherlands(Manuscript received 27 July 1994, in final form 27 November 1995)ABSTRACT This

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E. Vowinckel and Svenn Orvig

JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOr. VMEI8The Water Budget and Potential Water Reserves of the East Africa Source Region of the Nile X. VOWINCKEL AND SVENN ORVIGDepar#nent of Metton~/~ly, MEG/# Unlver~ty, Monir~a2, Canado, H3A 2T6(Mauuscript received 7 January 1978, in final form 16 August 1978)ABSTRACT An energy budget model has been used, with daily synoptic surface and upper air data from four stationsin East

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Heinz H. Lettau and Edward J. Hopkins

summer drought, for a continental or summer-rain climate in comparison with the less severe long-term reactions in a maritime or winter-rain climate; 2 ) the monthly balance of cvaporabie water and runoff reduction as caused by rainfor~t depletion in tropical Panama. Evapociimatonomy 111 is compared with two other methods for climatic water budget evaluation: 1 ) the Thornthwaite--Mather method using data for Wilmington, Delaware; and 2) the Penman method in a "monthly

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Sharon E. Nicholson and Andrew R. Lare

138JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOWME 29A Climatonomic Description of the Surface Energy Balance in the Central Sahel.Part II: The Evapoclimatonomy SubmodelSHARON E. NICHOLSON AND ANDREW R. LAREDepartment of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida(Manuscript received 3 April 1989, in final form ii August 1989)ABSTRACT	In Part I of this article we presented a study of the shortwave radiation budget in the West African Sahel,.using Lettau's climatonomy model. In Part 11

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Haruyasu Nagai

canopy, and simple representation is used for heat and water exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation compared to the former models. Some models ( Yamada 1982 ; Meyers and Paw U 1987 ) calculate the radiation transfer in canopy and the heat and water budget on leaves with multilayer vegetation representation. However, few models of this type include soil processes to deal with the heat and water exchanges between the atmosphere and the ground surface. A new atmosphere

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R. F. Dale, W. M. L. Nelson, K. L. Scheeringa, R. G. Stuff, and H. F. Reetz

empirical site-specific water balance model was generalized to account for cropland drainage effectson soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET). In predicting soil moisture for well-drained (WD) soils, usuallytotal water use is equated to infiltrated precipitation, stored soil moisture, and ET. In much of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt, however, row crop production is on soils which are poorly drained(PD) and underlain with perched water tables. These provide an additional source of soil water

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B. Ainslie and P. L. Jackson

precipitation biases being masked through the adjustment of parameters within the hydrological model ( Gourley and Vieux 2005 ). In the present analysis we circumvent this problem by performing simple water balance budgets, over a 23-yr period, on 12 watersheds located within the modeling domain. This approach is similar to Daly et al.’s (2008) use of water balance budgets to validate PRISM over the Pacific Northwest; however, in our water balances, we use calculated instead of estimated

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Binbin Zhou and Brad S. Ferrier

water budget ( Choularton et al. 1981 ). It is evident that the dissipation of radiation fog is the result of the breakdown of such a balance as one or more variables suddenly change—for instance, a fluctuation in turbulence associated with a variation in wind speeds or in cooling rate associated with nocturnal stratus clouds or sunrise. An examination of the equilibrium or persistence condition gives an alternative insight into radiation fog. Forecasting fog is in essence the prediction of a mean

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