Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 295 items for :

  • Water budget/balance x
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • All content x
Clear All
Uwe Dobrindt and Jens Schröter

1. Introduction Describing the global ocean circulation is still a problem despite more than 100 years of systematic observation and research in oceanography. The large-scale transport and the distribution of water masses can be derived from hydrographic data (temperature and salinity) using the geostrophic equations. The hydrographic datasets are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous and geostrophy can be used only to describe the vertical shear of the velocity field. To get absolute

Full access
Peiyang Cheng, Arastoo Pour-Biazar, Richard T. McNider, and John R. Mecikalski

1. Introduction As a key component of the surface energy budget, incident solar radiation (i.e., insolation) at Earth’s surface plays an important role in a wide range of studies, including weather prediction, climate monitoring, renewable energy production, water supply management, soil moisture and vegetation evapotranspiration estimation ( Tarpley 1979 ; Gautier et al. 1980 ; Li et al. 1995 ; Otkin et al. 2005 ; Diak 2017 ; Huang and Tatcher 2017 ; Watanabe and Nohara 2019

Free access
Pankajakshan Thadathil, Yasuhiro Sugimori, and Masatoshi Akiyama

heat storage determined from satellite data. Remote Sens. Environ., 11, 374-482.Mosby, H., Verdunstung, and Strahlung aufdem Meere, 1936: Ann. Meteor., 64, 281-286.Otobe, H., 1989: Radiation balance and heat budget at the ocean/ atmosphere interface in the western north Pacific. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 45, 134-143.Thadathil, P., M. Shikauchi, Y. Sugimori, and M. Kubota, 1993: A statistical method to get surface level air temperature from pre cipitable water. J. Oceanogr., 4( 5 ), 551

Full access
Seung-Bum Kim, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

all the terms in the MLT balance using GCM products. As numerical models satisfy first principles (e.g., closed budgets), any imbalance in the MLT budget indicates an incomplete formulation of the budget components. Among the budget components, our particular interest in this study is the formulation of the entrainment heat advection (i.e., the heat energy required to convert cold thermocline water into warm mixed layer water; e.g., Kraus and Turner 1967 ). Entrainment is an important mechanism

Full access
Peter Bowyer and David Woolf

and waves and a balance was achieved between invasion from the bubbles and evasion at or near the surface (“balance experiments”). In these experiments, total gas consisted of an ordinary air mixture (dominated by nitrogen and oxygen). Temperature variations were unavoidable, and natural atmospheric pressure variations also influenced the experiments. The water could not be absolutely sterilized, and therefore small net photosynthetic or respiratory fluxes of oxygen could not be avoided. These

Full access
Normand Bussières and Raoul J. Granger

1. Introduction The spatial resolution of climate and weather models has been increasing steadily over the years. An increasing number of the largest water bodies are becoming resolved and their interaction with the atmosphere can be taken into account by these models. Lake water temperature is one of the important parameters in this modeling effort. The lake water temperatures can be specified, for example, as a model boundary condition ( Brasnett 1997 ). Models of lake energy balance ( Rouse

Full access
S. P. Muszala, D. A. Connors, J. J. Hack, and G. Alaghband

calculated in the CMFMCA subroutine in the CAM3 and uses a stability-dependent mass flux representation ( Hack 1994 ). Convection is a primary mechanism for phase changes of water in the atmosphere and is often associated with precipitation. We will first obtain a per-grid-cell timing of the CMFMCA subroutine for any given time step. Once the timings are generated, we will study the timing behavior for load-balancing characterization. This routine was selected because of the relative simplicity of its

Full access
Rosario Q. Iannone, Daniele Romanini, Samir Kassi, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Erik R. Th Kerstel

physical basis. The usefulness of water isotopologues stems from the fact that the isotopologues of a molecule such as H 2 O exhibit small differences in their physical and chemical behavior, resulting in isotope fractionation during physical, chemical, and biological processes. Thus, abundance ratios of the stable water isotopologues provide an additional mass-balance equation and give information on the history of an air parcel, which may, for example, be used to help understand the transport of

Full access
James M. Wilczak and Alfred J. Bedard Jr.

, because the pressure term involves the covariance of a pressure gradient (instead of pressure itself, as in the TKE budget), a higher-frequency response may be necessary to measure the pressure term accurately. In balance, however, we believe that for the purpose of evaluating a pressure instrument, the budget of horizontal heat flux has a clear advantage over any of the other turbulence covariance budgets. In this study we analyze field measurements taken during the Riso Air–Sea Experiment (RASEX) of

Full access
H. Wang, R. T. Pinker, P. Minnis, and M. M. Khaiyer

radiation and thus modulate the energy balance of the earth and the atmosphere as estimated from satellites ( Ramanathan 1987 ; Ramanathan et al. 1989 ) and from numerical models ( Ramanathan et al. 1983 ; Cess et al. 1989 ). The largest uncertainties in surface shortwave (SW) flux estimates from satellites are due to inadequate information on cloud properties. There have been many attempts at both regional and global scales to estimate surface radiative fluxes from satellite-observed radiances

Full access