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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

assimilation includes a constraint to minimize deep-ocean interannual variability. This constraint reduces the thermosteric sea level trend stemming from the deep ocean (below 2250 m) by a factor of 2 and the halosteric trend by a factor of 10 as compared with the first guess. Regardless, the deep layers should not be neglected in general when estimating the ocean’s water mass budget from sea level change and temperature measurements especially on long time scales. This type of shortcoming might be

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Reiner Schlitzer

1. Introduction The formation of dense waters at high latitudes and the subsequent sinking and spreading of the water in the abyssal ocean are integral parts of the global ocean’s overturning circulation. This overturning circulation has profound effects on the heat budget of the earth and impacts the regional and global climate. Apart from heat, the sinking waters also carry dissolved constituents, such as oxygen, nutrients, and CO 2 , and the strength of the overturning circulation ultimately

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

squared per second have been converted to geometric distance). The attribute “dynamic” refers to the geostrophic balance between horizontal flow and SSH gradients, or, equivalently, pressure gradients, such that the flow is parallel to contours of equal SSH ( Gill 1982 ). In most regions of the World Ocean, the horizontal pressure gradients do not extend to the ocean bottom; they vanish at some depth because of density compensation, and cause an inverse correlation between SSH and pycnocline depth: a

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

) and probably results from the lack of explicit sea ice formation in bottom water formation areas. The net deep southward transport is consistent with the subsequent upwelling south of the polar front (≈10 Sv) required to balance the sinking of NADW and close the global overturning cell ( Rintoul et al. 2001 ). 4. Eddy heat transport a. Horizontal eddy heat transport The depth-integrated eddy heat divergence ( Fig. 3 ) identifies regions of significant eddy heat transport activity. The boundary

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Peter Huybers, Geoffrey Gebbie, and Olivier Marchal

(e.g., dissolved phosphorus) of the bottom waters ( Kroopnick 1985 ). High-density water masses that originate from high latitudes and fill the abyssal ocean today have distinct isotopic and chemical signatures. Most notably, North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) has relatively high δ 13 C and low Cd/Ca when compared with Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) ( Kroopnick 1985 ; Boyle 1988 ). Thus, benthic data from Atlantic Ocean sediments can provide information about the proportion of waters of northern

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

Gibraltar plays a critical role in regulating the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its outflow affects global ocean circulation [see, e.g., Candela (2001) for a recent review]. The Mediterranean Sea has an excess of evaporation over precipitation. Mass and salt budgets of the basin consequently require a net inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar, and a baroclinic exchange of outflowing salty Mediterranean seawater and an inflowing lower salinity North Atlantic Ocean water. Time-mean outflow

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

. Setup due to along-strait wind When the wind blows perpendicular to a coastline, a steady-state balance is quickly established between the surface wind stress and a pressure force due to the slope of the sea surface. The pressure force per unit volume is ρ w g ∂ η /∂ x , where ρ w is the water density, g is the acceleration due to gravity, η is the sea surface height, and x is a coordinate perpendicular to the coastline. The wind stress force per unit volume is τ x / H , where H is the

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

temperature and salinity conditions over the full water column and to adjust the time-varying meteorological forcing fields over the full estimation period on a daily basis. This work is an extension of a previous paper ( Stammer et al. 2002b , hereinafter referred to as SEA02 ) that described a similar synthesis but one that was obtained on a coarser 2° grid and over a shorter period while using significantly less data and less accurate model physics. As before, our approach is to use a general

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

natural framework for accounting for parameter uncertainties of the type discussed above (see, e.g., Wunsch 1996 ). In this context, Losch and Wunsch (2003) have explored the possibility of using bottom topography as a control variable in a barotropic shallow water model. The scope of this paper is to extend their study, and to investigate the sensitivity of the state of a given OGCM, here the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm; Marshall et al. 1997 ), to the

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