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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

. Many studies have reported the SST trend of the East China Sea (e.g., Belkin 2009 ; Tang et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2012 ; Bao and Ren 2014 ). Nevertheless, studies examining the mechanism of the SST rise in the East China Sea are limited. Zhang et al. (2010) performed a heat budget analysis using a reanalysis product from 1958 to 2010 and demonstrated qualitatively that the warming around the Kuroshio corresponded to an increase in the anomalous ocean advection and damping by surface heat flux

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

is smoothed, not the state variables that go into the budget term.) Although the boxcar filter is very simple (and does have some problems associated with aliasing into higher wavenumbers; Emery and Thomson 2001 ), it retains the exact budget balance when taken over an integer number of grid cells. For more sophisticated techniques, the reader is referred to, for example, Arbic et al. (2014) , Torres et al. (2018) , and Laurindo et al. (2019 ) for distinguishing motions based on spectra in

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Niklas Schneider and Bo Qiu

heat budget balances advection of temperature Θ by vertically averaged, horizontal wind with the combined turbulent and radiative flux of heat taken to be proportional to the difference of boundary layer temperature and the sea surface temperature T with an adjustment rate . Overbars denote vertical averages. Lateral mixing with coefficient is introduced to capture, albeit primitively, the damping by the sea breeze of the lateral gradients of temperature for scales smaller than a Rossby

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

higher levels of PW and cloud water are consistent with the increased transient eddy moisture flux convergence in the HR simulation (not shown but the differences are similar to Figs. 4e,f ) as well as the stronger advection of dry air from the northeast and a weakening of the background westerlies in the LR simulation ( Figs. 4a,b ). That is, even though the precipitation response over the SST anomaly is similar, in LR there is a local balance between increased evaporation and precipitation, while

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

are also related to the SST field. Radiative exchanges are represented with a single-column gray-radiation model following Frierson et al. (2006) , with a single wavelength for longwave radiative fluxes, transparent to water vapor and clouds. Such a simple radiative forcing eliminates the extra dependence of the forcing on water vapor, only keeping the dependence on SST. A detailed description is presented in appendix B . The CTRL experiment is associated with a zonally homogeneous SST, fixed in

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

an idealized upwelling problem for an eastern boundary current system. The result shows that the SST–wind stress interaction weakens the coastal upwelling largely because the upwelling-favorable nearshore wind stress is weakened in the nearshore zone because of the cold upwelled SSTs. The resulting increase in wind stress curl broadens and amplifies the poleward undercurrent as would be expected from the Sverdrup balance. Cyclonic eddies featuring relatively stronger SST gradients are found to be

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Ayumu Miyamoto, Hisashi Nakamura, and Takafumi Miyasaka

. Climate , 28 , 9298 – 9312 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0031.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0031.1 Grosvenor , D. P. , and R. Wood , 2014 : The effect of solar zenith angle on MODIS cloud optical and microphysical retrievals within marine liquid water clouds . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 14 , 7291 – 7321 , https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-7291-2014 . 10.5194/acp-14-7291-2014 Hartmann , D. L. , and D. A. Short , 1980 : On the use of earth radiation budget statistics for studies of clouds and

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

, Δ T , and g are, respectively, the horizontal viscosity (10 3 m 2 s −1 ), seawater density (1028 kg m −3 ), specific heat of seawater (3930 J kg −1 K −1 ), thermal expansion coefficient of seawater (2.5 × 10 −4 °C −1 ), temperature difference between the mixed layer and water just below it (0.5°C), and gravitational acceleration. Modeled SSTs were nearly identical, even if we chose 1.0°C for Δ T (not shown). Two adjustable constants m 0 and m c were set to 0.5 and 0.83, respectively

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A. Foussard, G. Lapeyre, and R. Plougonven

( Chelton et al. 2001 , 2004 ; O’Neill et al. 2003 ). It was also revealed through the signature of ocean eddies in turbulent air–sea fluxes of sensible and latent heat ( Bourras et al. 2004 ), or in cloud cover and rain rates ( Frenger et al. 2013 ). The coupling between the atmosphere and narrow oceanic structures has been explored through various analyses of the horizontal momentum budget in the boundary layer based on theoretical models ( Samelson et al. 2006 ; Schneider and Qiu 2015 ) or

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Benoît Vannière, Arnaud Czaja, Helen Dacre, and Tim Woollings

( Small et al. 2008 ; Skyllingstad and Edson 2009 ) modify the general balance in the momentum equation, with low and high resolution favoring, respectively, pressure adjustment and downward momentum mixing. In addition to surface wind convergence or divergence, some numerical studies reported a secondary cell with convergence and ascent on the warm side of the SST front ( Huang and Raman 1988 ; Wai and Stage 1989 ; Brachet et al. 2012 ). This circulation may well participate together with vertical

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