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Gregory J. McCabe, David M. Wolock, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory T. Pederson, Stephanie A. McAfee, Stephen Gray, and Adam Csank

balancing act between water for human use and water needed to maintain the health of ecosystems. Recently, Woodhouse et al. (2016) examined the influence of precipitation, temperature, and antecedent soil moisture on UCRB water year (1 October–30 September of the following year) streamflow over the past 100 years. Results indicated that cool season precipitation explained most of the variability in water-year streamflow; however, spring/summer temperatures and, to a lesser extent, antecedent fall soil

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Jeffrey Cardille, Michael T. Coe, and Julie A. Vano

addition to the more common accounting of lake water budgets. With the model validated in representative lakes from the NHLD, we address the following questions. In the NHLD, what is the relative effect of lake hydrologic type and climate on water balance measures? What factors most strongly influence lake type and the fate of precipitation in groundwater-dominated catchments of the Northern Highlands? Through exploration of lake responses with this model, we can begin to conceptualize the interactions

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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

1. Introduction Changes are occurring to high-latitude environments with further alteration likely under several global change scenarios. Responses in the arctic environment may include alterations to the landscape and in water fluxes and stores. While conceptual water balance models have proved useful in assessing contemporary hydrological conditions and in modeling future states, general circulation models have not proved accurate enough to close water budgets in hydrological applications

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Sébastien Gervois, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nicolas Viovy, Philippe Ciais, Nadine Brisson, Bernard Seguin, and Alain Perrier

'Interface entre le Biosphère et l'Atmosphère (SECHIBA; Ducoudré et al. 1993 ], which interacts with the atmosphere and computes the “instantaneous” (fast, i.e., half-hourly time step) fluxes of momentum, heat, water, and CO 2 assimilation, the soil water budget, and the surface energy budget. A biogeochemical model that simulates the daily processes of carbon and vegetation dynamics (e.g., respiration, litter production and decomposition, allocation, leaf cycle). A module of long-term (i.e., more than 1 yr

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Brent M. Lofgren, Andrew D. Gronewold, Anthony Acciaioli, Jessica Cherry, Allison Steiner, and David Watkins

atmosphere; and ground heat flux G that diffuses between the surface and subsurface. These components must be in balance with one another. The components of the surface water budget are precipitation P as a source and sinks that include evapotranspiration E either directly from the ground surface or transpired through plants, surface runoff R s , and subsurface runoff R ss . A limited amount of water can be stored in the soil within the rooting zone of local vegetation, but in the long term the

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Zhengqiu Zhang, Xiuji Zhou, Weiliang Li, and Michael Sparrow

1. Introduction Many experiments have proven that soil moisture has important effects on short-term climate and hydrology changes ( Yeh et al., 1984 ). However, the effects of water phase transitions on the ground energy budget have not been considered. In pioneering land surface studies, even the moisture effects were not taken into account in some land surface schemes ( Deardroff, 1978 ; Ji et al., 1989 ). In more detailed studies, some schemes parameterized the water phase transition

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K. Y. Li, R. De Jong, M. T. Coe, and N. Ramankutty

global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents. Ecology 94 : 7362 – 7366 . Jarvis , N. J. 1989 . A simple empirical model of root water uptake. J. Hydrol. 107 : 57 – 72 . Kucharik , C. J. , J. A. Foley , C. Delire , V. A. Fisher , M. T. Coe , J. D. Lenters , C. Young-Molling , and N. Ramankutty . 2000 . Testing the performance of a dynamic global ecosystem model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Global Biogeochem

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Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini, Lorenzo Silvestri, Silvia Meniconi, and Bruno Brunone

model. In fact, such a tool makes it possible to simulate the behavior of the aquifer of interest for given scenarios, that is, for a given degree of exploitation of the groundwater resource and recharge. On the basis of the results of the water balance, water company managers can figure out the sustainable volume of water that can be withdrawn to match the users’ demand according to the water table behavior. In fact, such a feature is a clear indicator of the condition of the aquifer on the whole

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Daniel F. Steinhoff, Andrew J. Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Michael J. Barlage, Thomas M. Hopson, Isaac Tarakidzwa, Karielys Ortiz-Rosario, Saul Lozano-Fuentes, Mary H. Hayden, Paul E. Bieringer, and Carlos M. Welsh Rodríguez

height and temperature of water in a specified container at user-specified intervals by solving the system of equations that governs the energy balance (i.e., heat and moisture budget) of the container as a function of meteorological and user-prescribed inputs. The model is therefore distinct from the energy budget model presented by Kearney et al. (2009) in that it simulates container water dynamics at user-specified time scales, whereas Kearney et al. addressed monthly time scales. The current

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P. C. D. Milly and Krista A. Dunne

this paper are, within the context of the larger USGS study, 1) to estimate the extent to which stand-alone hydrologic-model water-balance changes associated with climate change differ from the water-balance changes in the climate models that are used to estimate the climate change; 2) to identify the relative importance of distinct contributors to those differences; 3) in particular, to assess the consistency of potential evapotranspiration changes between the climate model and the modified Jensen

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