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Kai Tong, Fengge Su, and Chunhong Li

water over the past 50 years. A 10-yr-long (2001–10) modeling study in four lakes (including Nam Co Lake) in the southern-central TP indicated that the glacier-melt contribution to the total basin runoff volume played a less important role than precipitation-induced runoff in nonglacierized land areas ( Biskop et al. 2016 ). In Nam Co Lake, long-term (1980–2010) changes in the water budget and lake level were simulated using a dynamic water balance model by Wu et al. (2014) , and glacier melt

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Sanaa Hobeichi, Gab Abramowitz, Steefan Contractor, and Jason Evans

(2018) have characterized the performance of multiple precipitation datasets through an approach that combines ground-based observation of multiple hydrologic variables along with performance metrics based on surface water budget closure. Their approach offers advancement over previous studies by allowing a more reliable evaluation of precipitation datasets over regions with sparse observations by relying on the physical conservation constraints offered by the water balance. In the same context

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Chuanhao Wu, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Haichun Wu, Bill X. Hu, and Guoru Huang

temporal variability of climatic forcing involves various region-specific processes such as snow thawing–melting and vegetation growth ( Zeng and Cai 2016 ). Although advances have been made to quantify the Δ S effects on the water balances estimation within the Budyko framework, our knowledge on the roles of Δ S in water balance partition and its influences on BM performance at the shorter time scales is still limited given the large spatiotemporal variability in most water budget variables and the

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Xiaoyin Liu, Junzeng Xu, Shihong Yang, Jiangang Zhang, and Yijiang Wang

that soil heat storage was released slowly over the several hours after sunset ( Masseroni et al. 2015 ; Liu et al. 2018 ). This explains why, in rice fields, Cs events occurred much later than Cc events. c. Importance and contribution of vapor condensation to the rice field water budget While vapor condensation was well recognized as an important hydrometeorological process and water balance component in arid or semiarid areas, information on vapor condensation in humid areas was scarce. The

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Di Tian, Ming Pan, and Eric F. Wood

, they arguably provided the most realistic precipitation, temperature, and radiation forcings for the VIC model. Since VIC was forced with observed P and calibrated against observed runoff, and VIC forces water balance by model construct, ET and RO from PGF/VIC are reasonable estimates of water budgets. Given that, the PGF/VIC radiation forcings are satellite observations and the water budget variables are reasonable estimates, so by inference, the estimates of land surface energy fluxes should be

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Vimal Mishra, Keith A. Cherkauer, and Laura C. Bowling

. 1999 ; Bowling and Lettenmaier 2010 ; Coe 1998 ; Coe et al. 2002 ). Lake water level may change seasonally and interannually in response to variations in the water balance over the lake and its watershed ( Street-Perrott and Harrison 1985 ). These variations are important for controlling surface runoff affected by lakes and wetlands ( Cardille et al. 2004 ). Wu and Johnston (2008) also indentified in a study conducted in a lake/wetland-dominated watershed in Michigan that the presence of lakes

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David M. W. Pritchard, Nathan Forsythe, Hayley J. Fowler, Greg M. O’Donnell, and Xiao-Feng Li

temporal patterns of precipitation variability and atmospheric water transport ( Maussion et al. 2014 ; Curio et al. 2015 ; Curio and Scherer 2016 ). The HAR has also been employed to successfully provide offline meteorological forcing data for models of glacier mass balance and hydrology ( Huintjes et al. 2015 ; Biskop et al. 2016 ; Tarasova et al. 2016 ), as well as to examine the connection between midlatitude westerlies and glacier mass balance in monsoonal parts of the region ( Mölg et al

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Timothy DelSole, and Mei Zhao

. , 1998 : The observed mean annual cycle of moisture budgets over the central United States . J. Climate , 11 , 2180 – 2190 . Ruane, A. C. , and Roads J. O. , 2008 : Dominant balances and exchanges of the atmospheric water cycle in the Reanalysis 2 at diurnal, annual, and intraseasonal time scales . J. Climate , 21 , 3951 – 3966 . Trenberth, K. E. , and Guillemot C. J. , 1998 : Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrologic cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses . Climate Dyn

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Enrique Rosero, Lindsey E. Gulden, Zong-Liang Yang, Luis G. De Goncalves, Guo-Yue Niu, and Yasir H. Kaheil

1. Introduction Among the components of the water balance, runoff has arguably the greatest importance for society. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified the vulnerability of freshwater resources to climate change and highlighted the need for increased capacity to model runoff processes at high-resolution (catchment scale) within the land surface models (LSMs) that are linked to climate models ( Bates et al. 2008 ). Such improvements, combined with more extensive, high

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Sujay V. Kumar, David M. Mocko, Shugong Wang, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and Jordan Borak

ground area, essentially represents the potential surface area available for photosynthesis. As a variable that controls the carbon, energy, and water balance in plants ( Cowling and Field 2003 ), LAI is a key parameter in models of land surface and phenology. Most modern (third generation) LSMs include formulations of LAI, either as a parameterization based on vegetation type or prescribed from climatological values ( Sellers et al. 1997 ; Pitman 2003 ). The further development of submodels of

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