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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

localized diabatic upwelling near the equator ( S s in Fig. 2 ). These authors impose heating or cooling in particular locations and infer the layer transport based on the loss or gain of fluid. Nurser and Williams (1990) consider all of the diabatic forcings in Fig. 2 . The essential balance they propose is that the northward transport of light water east of the outcrop is T north = T e + T i + T w , composed of the Ekman, interior geostrophic, and western boundary transport. These flows are

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R. M. Samelson

, with its circumpolar connection, and have been interpreted to suggest instead that the amplitude of the overturning cell is controlled by Southern Hemisphere winds ( Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ). Related work suggests the importance of eddy fluxes across the circumpolar current in establishing the balances that control the overturning cell ( Gnanadesikan 1999 ; Hallberg and Gnanadesikan 2001 , 2006 ; MacCready and Rhines 2001 ). Here, a simple, closed dynamical model of the warm-water branch of

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J. A. Whitehead

water of Atlantic origin. In both cases, double diffusion (the inverse of the salt finger case) obviously plays a role in the heat and salt flux budget, although the quantitative rates are not quantified yet. The flow in this cavity exhibited two distinct flows that corresponded to the temperature mode and the salt mode in the previous experiments. The salt mode was dominated by dense saltwater that filled the cavity. Upwelling of the saltwater from the floor of the cavity was slow, and the dense

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Michael A. Spall

-dimensional circulation but also from its fundamental importance for the vorticity balance of the fluid. While the thermohaline circulation is often discussed in the context of the Atlantic Ocean, there are analogous circulations in numerous marginal seas, some in the Atlantic Ocean, in which water mass transformation takes place, such as the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian (GIN) Seas, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Persian Gulf. While the thermohaline circulation is often depicted as a two

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

heat and salt budget analyses. Section 7 supplies further discussion on the nature of PMV. 2. Model and experimental design CCSM3 is a state-of-art global climate model consisting of four components of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface, which are linked through a flux coupler ( Collins et al. 2006 ). We use the version of CCSM3 at T31x3 resolution ( Yeager et al. 2006 ). The atmospheric component is the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) at T31 resolution with 26 levels in

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