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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

, developed from physically based principles, retain some empirical aspects while others are still fully empirical. Rainfall–runoff processes can be modeled on a 1–24-h time step basis. Precipitation data can be obtained either from meteorological stations or from a weather radar. A mixed, degree-day, energy budget approach is used to simulate daily variations of mean snowpack characteristics: thickness, water equivalent, mean density, thermal deficit, liquid water content, and temperature. An empirical

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

cause for Northern Hemisphere glaciation? Science 282 : 436 – 438 . Dyurgerov , M. B. and M. F. Meier . 1997 . Mass balance of mountain and subpolar glaciers: A new global assessment for 1961–1990. Arct. Alp. Res. 29 : 379 – 391 . Eltahir , E. A. 1996 . El Niño and the natural variability in the flow of the Nile River. Water Resour. Res. 32 : 131 – 137 . Federer , C. A. , C. J. Vörösmarty , and B. Fekete . 1996 . Intercomparison of methods for potential

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Deborah A. McGrath, Jonathan P. Evans, C. Ken Smith, David G. Haskell, Neil W. Pelkey, Robert R. Gottfried, Charles D. Brockett, Matthew D. Lane, and E. Douglass Williams

(i.e., based on presence/absence) we created a Normalized Differenced Benthic Index (NDBI) with the following structure: This index has a range between −1 with totality of pollution-tolerant inverts and +1 being a totality of intolerant inverts. Zero signifies balance between the two. Thus, a higher index value indicates higher water quality. Invertebrate taxa were assigned as tolerant if the tolerance score from the RBPs was greater than 5 and intolerant if the score was less than 5 (this

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