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Daniel L. Cadet and Steve Greco

, moisture budgets over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal are investigatedfor the 1979 summer monsoon season. Over the Arabian Sea the different terms of the moisture balance equation, except evaporation, stronglyfluctuate depending on the activity of the monsoon. The relative contribution to the monsoon moisture supplyby water vapor Ixansport across the equator and Arabian Sea evaporation varies as the monsoon intensitychanges from active through break and back to revival stages. However, it is

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JOSHUA Z. HOLLAND and EUGENE M. RASMUSSON

of the water vapor budget, written with evaporationas the residual. Thus, the sign of each term is the sign ofthe evaporation increment required to balance it. Anevaporation rate of 6.0 mm.day-2 was computed for theperiod. The mean divergence term is the major term inthe balance equation. The horizontal advection term makesa relatively small contribution, amounting to only 10percent of the mean flux divergence.Profiles for the horizontal flux divergence terms areshown in figure 5. The mean

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EUGENE M. RASMUSSON

significantly greater amplitude thanthat computed from the atmospheric water budget.These Thornthwaite storage values, which have pre-viously been used for large-scale water balance compu-tations by a number of investigators, were apparentlynot meant to be strictly comparable to the total storagechange over a large basin. According to van Hylckama(1956), the Thornthwaite computational procedure con-1 24MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWVol. 99, No. 2

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Da-Lin Zhang, Yubao Liu, and M. K. Yau

temperature θ e surfaces, suggesting the presence of a state of conditional symmetric neutrality ( Emanuel 1986 ). However, strong potential instability is evident in the environment of the hurricane. 3. Vertical momentum budget Figure 3 depicts all the budget terms in Eq. (2) . The largest terms are the vertical PGF ( W P , Fig. 3a ), local buoyancy ( W B , Fig. 3b ), and water loading ( W L , not shown). Our choice of the running-average basic state leads to a small local buoyancy, which is of

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J. Noilhan and S. Planton

is presented. The number of parameters has been reduced as much as possible, while attempting topreserve the representation of the physics which controls the energy and water budgets. We distinguish twomain classes of parameters. The spatial distribution of primary parameters, i.e., the dominant types of soil andvegetation within each grid cell, can be specified from existing global dalasets. The secondary parameters,degcfibing the physical properties of each type of soil and vegetation, can be

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Dean Vickers, L. Mahrt, Jielun Sun, and Tim Crawford

signs in Fig. 8 ). One interpretation of c > 0 is that the turbulence is not in pure decay and that generation of turbulence over the water is not negligible. Using c > 0 effectively increases L s and slows the net rate of decay. 5. Momentum budget Horizontal advection is the largest term close to the coast ( Table 2 ) in the equation of motion for the offshore mean wind [ Eq. 7 ] due to acceleration (deceleration in unstable case) of the mean wind and due to the generally strong wind speeds

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Thomas R. Karl

soil moisture with subsequent monthly and seasonal mean temperature may come from improvements in the water balance computations which are part of the Palmer model, i.e., estimation ofevapotranspiration, the treatment of runoff, the inclusion of snow cover, the inclusion of irrigation estimates, or from other models, or preferably from a network of soil moisture measurements. With respect to the Palmer water budget evapotranspiration calculations, sensitivity studies of the

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W. D. Hibler III

coupling can reproduce observedthickness and drift characteristics, and to identifyaspects of the model most in need of improvement.2. Description of the model A fully coupled dynamic thermodynamic sea icemodel can be divided into the following components:a momentum balance describing ice drift which includes air and water stresses, Coriolis force, internalDECEMBER 1980 W. D. H I B L E R I I I 1945ice stress

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Paul A. Ullrich, Peter H. Lauritzen, and Christiane Jablonowski

. , 227 , 55 – 78 . Rančić , M. , 1992 : Semi-Lagrangian piecewise biparabolic scheme for two-dimensional horizontal advection of a passive scalar. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 120 , 1394 – 1405 . Rančić , M. , J. Purser , and F. Mesinger , 1996 : A global shallow water model using an expanded spherical cube. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 122 , 959 – 982 . Ronchi , C. , R. Iacono , and P. S. Paolucci , 1996 : The “cubed sphere”: A new method for the solution of partial differential

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Cheng-Ta Chen and Erich Roeckner

) . The validation of the model's simulation of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget, the mean cloud properties, and their spatial and temporal variability is reported in Chen and Roeckner (1996, 1997) . The main characteristics of the model are described as follows. The model's prognostic variables are vorticity, divergence, logarithm of surface pressure, temperature, specific humidity, and mixing ratio of total cloud water (liquid and ice phase together). Except for the water component, the

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