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Michael A. Spall

direction of topographic wave propagation ( Spall 2005 ), into the basin on the right-hand side of Fram Strait and out of the basin on the left-hand side of the strait. In this case, the mixing within the basin determines the potential vorticity and location of the outflowing water on the left-hand side of the strait, the potential vorticity of the outflowing water does not determine the mixing within the basin. In the end, the same budget constraints are satisfied but the interpretation of cause and

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

submesoscale cold filaments visible in particular on the South Wall of the Gulf Stream, that is, the open-ocean side within the subtropical gyre, which is a favorable place for the formation of very long and narrow cold filaments due to the intrusion of colder water coming from the open ocean. Multiple cold filaments are seen at various stages of development in Fig. 1 . One filament in the process of formation is seen at 33°N, 76°W and another well-formed filament is at 34°N, 75°W, among many other

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

thermal wind balance has been used to obtain the approximate expression in (17) . Because 〈 θ 〉 y is fixed by the surface forcing, T ∝ h 2 , as long as the bottom velocity is negligible. However, in calculations with a flat bottom, 〈 u b 〉 can be very large. This is because the zonal momentum budget requires where r is the coefficient of bottom drag, and p b is the bottom pressure. If h bx = 0, then the bottom drag is the only means to remove the zonal momentum imparted by the wind, and 〈 u

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

advective processes that maintain the EUC against vertical mixing and was chosen to balance the wind stress over the total water column. It has a cubic Gaussian shape with decay scale d = 120 m, chosen as it matched the form of the 3D model pressure gradient well. Dropping the from Eq. (8) , the above approximations result in a simple 1D diffusion equation model for the EUC velocity , where we also include equations for the temperature and salinity : where the first (second) member of the curly

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Vamsi K. Chalamalla and Sutanu Sarkar

discussed by Gayen and Sarkar (2011a) before presenting new results regarding the density variance balance. Figure 3a shows the cycle evolution of various terms in the TKE budget equation for case 1 along with the streamwise velocity (dotted line) to establish the phase. All the terms plotted in this figure are averaged in the slope-normal direction. Corresponding to a convective instability, the turbulent buoyancy flux representing the transfer of available potential energy to turbulent kinetic

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Catherine A. Vreugdenhil, Andrew McC. Hogg, Ross W. Griffiths, and Graham O. Hughes

that diapycnal mixing may play an important role in the ocean to allow the gravitationally stable density stratification to coexist with the vertical overturning circulation; so, it stands to reason that an adjustment time scale based on diffusivity may be significant. Theoretical scalings for simple equilibrium state ocean models often balance the turbulent mixing across density surfaces with the upward advection of dense water (Robinson and Stommel 1959 ; Welander 1971) , assuming a governing

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Xia Liu, Mu Mu, and Qiang Wang

processes in the formation of the LM path was revealed in this paper. Above all, the importance of the nonlinear physical processes is stated through the nonlinear advection vector diagrams of the momentum equations. To further analyze the physical mechanism of the nonlinear processes, we introduced the perturbation vorticity budget equation, which could represent the main balance of forces influencing the Kuroshio LM path. The results showed that the nonlinear term slows the eastward propagation caused

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