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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

Kassianov 2008 ), tropical marine cloud clusters (e.g., Yanai et al. 1973 ; Cheng 1989 ), and vigorous continental mesoscale convective systems (e.g., Cho and Ogura 1974 ; Maddox 1983 ; Schumacher and Johnson 2005 ; Coniglio et al. 2010 ). On greatly extended scales, the roles of these moisture sources have been assessed in the context of atmospheric water budgets for diverse large regions (e.g., Benton et al. 1950 , Mississippi basin; Budyko 1974 , 239–243, European Union of Soviet Socialist

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John G. Dwyer, Michela Biasutti, and Adam H. Sobel

from the surface to the tropopause: where we use p sfc = 1000 hPa and p trop = 250 hPa for simplicity. Assuming that ω = 0 at the surface and the tropopause, then , and the moisture budget can be written as We apply this decomposition to monthly data for the historical simulation for 1980–99 and plot the annual mean, amplitude, and phase of each component in Fig. 4 . In the annual mean, the dominant balance averaged over the tropics is between P and E with a smaller contribution from

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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

SWA, but not in the Sahel, thus suggesting some larger-scale effects of the misrepresentation of the lower-tropospheric water and energy budgets in this area. Targeted sensitivity experiments are needed to carefully disentangle these feedbacks. This also holds for the cloud–wind coupling, which appears to be less important than previously thought from the results presented here, but this may also be a problem of insufficient resolution. Last, it is urgently needed to improve the availability of

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