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Esther Portela, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, Christophe Maes, and Virginie Thierry

) framework to investigate the decadal volume trend of interior water masses in the SHOs by means of a volume budget. Potential density is the natural coordinate to separate isopycnal (diaspice) and diapycnal mass fluxes while spiciness, defined as the thermohaline variations along isopycnals (following the definition of McDougall and Krzysik 2015 ), is added as a second dimension in the volume budget. Spiciness is a meaningful variable to identify different water masses spreading along isopycnals

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Geoffrey Gebbie

). Here we perform a scaling analysis with the global ocean modeled as a water column where sea level rise is equal to the change in ocean thickness, H m − H g , although our detailed analysis will show later that hypsometric effects cannot be ignored for the deglaciation (e.g., Becker et al. 2009 ). In the first deglacial step, freshwater of thickness h M is added to balance the deglacial mass budget, which includes any mass input by glacial meltwater, changes in atmospheric water vapor

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Alberto R. Piola and Arnold L. Gordon

by imposing a uniformly distributed upwe!!ing rate from the deepocean. From the equatorial zone budget of the Pacific Ocean a flow of 14 x 106 m3 s-~ at 33.6%o salinity intothe Indian Ocean through the Southeast Asian Seas is required. This transport agrees with that derived fromthe Indian Ocean mass and freshwater balances.1: Introduction Production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)transfers thermocline layer water into the abyssal ocean.Export of NADW to the Pacific and Indian

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Rui Xin Huang

Recent progress in thermocline theory is linked and demonstrated by a wind-driven three-layer numericalmodel. The dynamic balances of the circulation of the model are studied through examination of potentialvorticity budgets. Potential vorticity balances of two cases of the subcritical state have been calculated over theentire basin and along trajectories. Vorticity budget analysis clearly shows several zones of different dynamicsin the gyre scale cimulation. High potential vorticity water masses in

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Rebecca H. Jackson and Fiammetta Straneo

Straneo 2012 ; Motyka et al. 2013 ; Xu et al. 2013 ; Inall et al. 2014 ; Mortensen et al. 2014 ; Bendtsen et al. 2015 ). Water properties and velocity, usually measured over a brief period, are used to estimate ocean heat transport through a fjord cross section. The heat transported toward the glacier is assumed to melt glacial ice, allowing a submarine melt rate to be calculated. Several studies also compute a salt budget to aid in extrapolating or constraining their velocity fields (e

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A. E. Gargett, T. B. Sanford, and T. R. Osborn

energy budget; however, conditions 3 h earlier allow an approximate balance between two sources, wind forcing and an unstable buoyancy flux, and a single sink due to dissipation. The energy deficit indicated at the time of C28 could be supplied by running down the tqrbulent kinetic energy field over an estimated tithe scale of -4 h. It could obviously be supplied in other ways, for example if the mean velocity field of the mixed layer were not slablike, or if advection or other non-Iocal effects were

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Peter J. Hendricks, Robin D. Muench, and Gilbert R. Stegen

-March 1983 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX West). These datahave been used in estimating a mean midwinter upper layer heat balance for the MIZ. During a period whenthe ice edge was stationary the dominant source term in the heat budget was the advective input from northwardflow of relatively warm water beneath the ice edge. The associated mean heat flux per unit length of ice edgewas about 22 MW m-l, approximately equal to the heat required to melt the southward-moving ice. Heat wasalso input by

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James R. Ledwell

could be viewed as a linear stretch of continental slope up to about 3000-m depth. Most of the water-mass modification takes place below this level. Hence, a stretch of continental slope might have an effect on the bottom water similar to that of a midocean ridge. Bottom water would be imported and slightly lighter “deep water” would be exported. To balance the buoyancy budget, a relatively small amount of water above the export layer would be imported. It seems that regardless of whether a seamount

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Eric Kunze and Thomas B. Sanford

turbulence production fromfinescale internal wave shear, is applied to 114 full-water-depth velocity profiles in the Sargasso Sea. An averageeddy diffusivity of 0.1 x 10' ~ m2 s ~, iadependent of depth, is inferred. This value is consistent with full-waterdepth microstructure mea,~uremeats fix~m abyssal basins in the eastern North Atlantic and eastern North Pacific.It is an order of magnitude smaller than the values inferred from a simple vertical advection-diffusion balanceor bulk budgets. Thus. the

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Eli Biton and Hezi Gildor

, pressure work, and surface buoyancy flux, respectively. Therefore, the budgets of KE V and APE V can be approximated as and respectively. In the above equations, ρ is the density anomaly with respect to the reference value of density ρ o , P is the pressure anomaly with respect to the pressure in a resting water having a constant density of ρ o , V = ( u , υ , w ) is the velocity vector, V h is the horizontal velocity, g is the gravity constant, B o is the buoyancy flux at the sea

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