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Robert Wood

stratocumulus clouds, longwave cooling is typically the leading term in the STBL energy budget (e.g., Caldwell et al. 2005 ). Most stratocumulus contain liquid water in sufficient abundance that they are largely opaque to longwave radiation ( Paltridge 1974 ; Platt 1976 ). The volume absorption coefficient in the longwave increases approximately linearly with liquid water mixing ratio q l ( Platt 1976 ; Pinnick et al. 1979 ) and can be expressed as β λ = κ λ ρq l , where ρ is the air density, and

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J. R. Garratt

. Wagner, 1971: On the relationship between geo strophic and surface wind at sea. Mort. Wea. Rev., 99, 255 260.Hawkins, H. F. and D. T. Rubsam, 1968: Hurricane Hilda 1964, II. Structure and budgets of the hurricane on October 1, 1964. Mort. Wea. Rev., 96, 617-636.Hicks, B. B., 1972: Some evaluations of drag and bulk transfer coeff~cients over water bodies of different sizes. Bound. Layer Meteor., 3, 201-213.--, 1976: Reply to comments by J. F. Shreffler on "A procedure for the

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

of futurework. Definitions and terminology. Cumulus parameterization requires the creation of subgrid-scale implicitclouds, which vertically transport heat, water vapor,and other quantities, generally in the absence of gridscale saturation. Closure assumptions are required todefine the relationship between these implicit cloudsand the grid-scale variables. For mesoscale models, theform of closure may have to difl~r from that for largescale models (Fritsch and Chappell 1980; Frank 1983).Details

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T. N. Krishnamurti

research aircraft.In addition, high resolution estimates of the earth'sradiation budget were obtained from geostationary(Indian Ocean GOES) and polar orbiting satellites(Nimbus-F, Tiros-N, NOAA-A), retrieval soundings oftemperature and precipitable water, and direct measurements of long- and shortwave irradiances from research aircraft. A special collection of marine data overthe Indian Ocean also provided some of the uniqueobservations that were complemented by FGGE andits special observing systems

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

1. Introduction Weather, climate, and Earth system models approximate the solutions to sets of equations that describe the relevant physics and chemistry. These equations represent, for example, balances of momentum, energy, and mass of the appropriate system. Discrete approximations in space and time to these continuous equations are necessary to solve these equations numerically. Creating a single, coherent, and consistent discretization of an entire system of equations covering the entire

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Dayton G. Vincent

vertical shear toward the edges of theband, particularly to its southwest. This section closes with a comparison of the verticalprofiles of convective heating between the SPCZ andother tropical regions. Figure 12 shows such profilesderived from the Ql-budget technique of Yanai et al.(1973). The profile on the left is taken from Miller andVincent (1987) and represents the average convectiveheating for the SPCZ region bounded by 7.5--27.5-Sand 170--135-W, for the period 10-18 January 1979.The profiles

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David M. Schultz and Philip N. Schumacher

discussed above. If significant flow curvature is present (especially changes in curvature in the vertical), the observed alongfront wind υ is better approximated by the alongfront gradient wind υ gr rather than the alongfront geostrophic wind υ g . Sanders (1986 , section 4b) derives the condition for symmetric instability relative to a basic state in gradient-wind balance and presents nomograms for its use. That condition is −3 υ gr (1 + υ gr / fr )/ r < 0, where υ gr is the basic

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

: Water budget. J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 43 – 64 . Braun , S. A. , M. T. Montgomery , and Z. Pu , 2006 : High-resolution simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The organization of eyewall vertical motion. J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 19 – 42 . Bretherton , C. S. , and Coauthors , 2004 : The EPIC 2001 stratocumulus study. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 967 – 977 . Bryan , G. H. , and R. Rotunno , 2009 : The influence of near-surface, high-entropy air in hurricane eyes on

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

variations. These resultsare consistent with an oscillation that is--at 850 hPa atleast--in approximate geostrophic balance with varyingpressure maxima and minima centered on the equator.A low-level low pressure anomaly at the equator is accompanied by low-level anomalous easterly winds atCanton. Spectra and cross spectra with data from other stations revealed spectral peaks and also marked maximain coherence in the 40-50-day range between stationsfar removed from one another (Madden and Julian1972a

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

conservative (i.e., adiabatic and frictionless) conditions. By contrast, wave activity and the associated wave activity flux do satisfy a conservation relation, for conservative flow. It means that the flux completely accounts for the local rate of change of wave activity , and there are no further adiabatic sources and sinks, in contrast to the EKE budget equation (3) . As a consequence, wave activity is globally conserved during the conservative propagation of a wave packet. This facilitates

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