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Qingfang Jiang and James D. Doyle

momentum fluxes are computed following the Louis (1979) and Louis et al. (1982) formulation. The grid-scale evolution of the microphysical processes is explicitly predicted from budget equations for cloud water, cloud ice, rainwater, snow water, and water vapor mixing ratios ( Rutledge and Hobbs 1983 ) and the subgrid-scale moist convective processes are parameterized using an approach following Kain and Fritsch (1993) . The short- and longwave radiation processes are parameterized following

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Juerg Schmidli, Gregory S. Poulos, Megan H. Daniels, and Fotini K. Chow

evolution in a deep valley. Part II: Numerical simulation of the cross-valley circulation. J. Appl. Meteor. , 36 , 883 – 895 . Mahrt , L. , 1982 : Momentum balance of gravity flows. J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 2701 – 2711 . McKee , T. B. , and R. D. O’Neil , 1989 : The role of valley geometry and energy budget in the formation of nocturnal valley winds. J. Appl. Meteor. , 28 , 445 – 456 . Merritt , D. A. , 1995 : A statistical averaging method for wind profiler Doppler spectra. J

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James D. Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, William O. J. Brown, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, Andreas Dörnbrack, Qingfang Jiang, Shane D. Mayor, and Martin Weissmann

in balance with the surface air temperature, resulting in a zero heat flux for these experiments. The surface momentum flux is computed following the Louis (1979) and Louis et al. (1982) formulation, which makes use of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory and assumes a vegetation roughness length of 1 cm. A radiation condition is used for the lateral boundaries following Orlanski (1976) , with the exception that the Doppler-shifted phase speed ( u ± c ) is specified and temporally invariant at

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