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Ruping Mo, Melinda M. Brugman, Jason A. Milbrandt, James Goosen, Quanzhen Geng, Christopher Emond, Jonathan Bau, and Amin Erfani

organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the atmospheric water balance requirements and their implications in the orographic precipitation analysis. The physical geography of southern BC, data, and NWP systems used in this study are described in section 3 . The two AR-enhanced winter storms and the corresponding model predictions are analyzed in sections 4 and 5 , respectively. Concluding remarks are given in section 6 . 2. The atmospheric water balance and precipitation Heavy

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Haiyan Jiang, Jeffrey B. Halverson, Joanne Simpson, and Edward J. Zipser

larger than the moisture convergence term again. During landfall, the differences between precipitation and the moisture convergence term were balanced by the large negative value of the cloud storage term and the local change of TPW. Since the cloud storage is calculated as a residual and evaporation from rain and cloud is neglected in the water budget balance, the negative value of the residual term indicates evaporation from rain and cloud. Table 2 gives the 12.5-day temporal integral of the

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Keith M. Hines, Robert W. Grumbine, David H. Bromwich, and Richard I. Cullather

faster than that of the net radiation, consequently the heat flux up from the snowpack must increase to maintain the energy balance. Between the South Pole and 68°S, the net balance changes very slightly between day 0.5 and day 7.0. North of 68°S, open water is present and the net balance is large and negative. An evaluation of model surface energy balance over Antarctica has recently been carried out by King and Connolley (1997) for the Unified Climate Model of the U.K. Meteorological Office. They

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Ramesh Vellore, Darko Koračin, Melanie Wetzel, Steven Chai, and Qing Wang

hydrometeors in the thermodynamic energy balance, an alternate method was formulated to diagnose the simulated liquid water fluxes based on mutually independent drop size ranges. We separate the total water content into nonprecipitating types, which is the drop population with diameters of less than 80 μ m (cloud water), and precipitating types with diameters of 80–300 μ m (drizzle) and greater than 300 μ m (rain). The computational procedure is described in the appendix . The simulated liquid water

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Paul J. Roebber, James M. Frederick, and Thomas P. DeFelice

dynamical (divergence and vertical motion) and moisture budget characteristics following the triangulation techniques of Bellamy (1949) and Bosart and Sanders (1981) . With the assumption that all condensed water falls out of the atmospheric column as precipitation, the excess of precipitation ( P ) over evaporation ( E ) within a triangle (where the sounding stations are positioned at the vertices of the triangle; see Fig. 1 ) can be written as Here, q is the specific humidity, h is the

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Thomas E. Rosmond

models. Assuming no spurioussources or sinks of heat, any temperature bias in amodel should ultimately depend on the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing longwaveradiation at the top of the model atmosphere. Theglobal mean heat budget of NOGAPS compared to thereal atmosphere heat budget (Ramanathan et al. 1989)is summarized in Fig. 1. The real heat budget numbers(parentheses) are in balance, but the NOGAPS numbers, computed directly from the model's physical processes, show a small

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Charles A. Doswell III and Harold E. Brooks

officials were asked by policy-makers about the effects of proposed budget cuts and could not produce quantitative documentation of the potential negative impacts of the proposed reductions. This made their service an easy target in the political arena; efforts to balance national budgets eventually will force public weather services in all nations to respond to this sort of question. As it now stands, the United States is poorly equipped to make intelligent decisions in the current and future budget

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James J. Simpson, Michael D. Dettinger, Frank Gehrke, Timothy J. McIntire, and Gary L. Hufford

for a pixel-based RTM computation over a relatively large area is inconsistent with the real-time/high-spatial-resolution requirements of the intended application. b. Accommodating cloud-cover variations in two existing models of snowmelt runoff An example of a hydrologic model with spatially distributed parameterizations of daily snowpack heat and water budgets is PRMS ( Leavesley et al. 1983 ). The spatial variability of land characteristics that affect snowpack and runoff generation is

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Robert G. Quayle and Robert G. Steadman

“Wind chill errors”: Part I. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1628–1630. WMO, 1997: The German Klima–Michel model. WMO Bull., 46, 31. Fig. 1. The heat balance of a human being: M = metabolic heat production, QH = sensible heat flux, QSW = latent heat flux, QL = moisture heat flux, QRe = respiration heat flux (sensible and latent). Radiation budget (including extra radiation received from sources external to the body): I = direct solar radiation, D = diffuse solar radiation, R = reflected

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Piero Malguzzi, Andrea Buzzi, and Oxana Drofa

the microphysical processes related to slantwise precipitation (both solid and liquid), of the convective precipitation, of the soil water and thermal balance (including vegetation), of the atmospheric radiation, and of the gravity wave drag related to excitation of orographic waves. The SL is modeled accordingly to classical Monin–Obukhov similarity theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1955 ). The Businger (see Fleagle and Businger 1980 ) stability functions are used in the unstable SL, while Holtslag

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