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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

1. Introduction Rain or snow falling over any particular location is composed of condensed water vapor that entered the atmosphere as surface evaporation from a range of upstream locations. Surface and atmospheric conditions along the paths of moisture advection determine the ultimate sources of evaporative moisture, which generally have a combination of oceanic and terrestrial origins. Knowledge of the sources of moisture supplying precipitation over a particular location could be used to

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

during the drought even though daily ET values had declined. Closer inspection of daily weather maps (not shown) revealed that the smaller dewpoint depressions were due to a combination of persistent northerly winds transporting moisture from nondrought areas and the more frequent occurrence of lake breezes moving far inland from Lake Michigan during the afternoon and evening. Both of these processes helped offset local decreases in lower tropospheric water vapor caused by the anomalously low ET

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

1. Introduction Drought monitoring is a complex and multifaceted endeavor, warranting use of multiple tools. Drought impacts can be manifested in all components of the hydrologic budget: in water supply terms (precipitation), in storage (soil moisture, snowpack, groundwater, and surface water), and in exchange or flux terms (evapotranspiration, snowmelt, drainage/recharge, runoff, and streamflow). Each of these components has relevance to specific groups of stakeholders, and each has a unique

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M. Hoerling, J. Eischeid, A. Kumar, R. Leung, A. Mariotti, K. Mo, S. Schubert, and R. Seager

heat and drought beginning in May 2012. These reduced harvests together with the impacts on U.S. production resulted in substantial wheat price increases worldwide ( www.businessweek.com/news/2012-08-23/russia-may-run-out-of-exportable-grain-surplus-in-november ). Over the United States, the aggregate consequence of these various drought-inducing circulation features was that the principal source of water vapor in the summer over the central United States from the Gulf of Mexico region was greatly

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