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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

dominated by the response of the land biosphere sink to climate variations ( Denman et al. 2007 ), and recent analyses from global observations have revealed that these sinks, while remaining stable in their long-term averages, have become increasingly sensitive to subtle changes in climate ( Ballantyne et al. 2012 ). The terrestrial carbon sink is affected by temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, water vapor, CO 2 concentration, and solar visible radiation and hence will be altered by climate

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Nathan P. Gillett, Vivek K. Arora, Damon Matthews, and Myles R. Allen

theory and plot-scale validation . Ecol. Modell. , 151 , 143 – 176 . Joshi , M. , and G. Jones , 2009 : The climatic effects of the direct injection of water vapour into the stratosphere by large volcanic eruptions . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 6109 – 6118 . Matthews , H. , N. Gillett , P. Stott , and K. Zickfeld , 2009 : The proportionality of global warming to cumulative carbon emissions . Nature , 459 , 829 – 832 . Meehl , G. A. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Global climate

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

calculated as weighted average of individual surface energy balances per tile based on the resistance approach, where aerodynamic and surface resistances account for the transfer efficiency of heat and water vapor over a vertical temperature and humidity gradient. EC-Earth uses the Global Land Cover Characteristics database version 2.0 at ~1-km resolution as base map, which distinguishes 15 vegetation types in the land surface scheme. Their respective cover fractions are modified according to the time

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Pierre Friedlingstein, Malte Meinshausen, Vivek K. Arora, Chris D. Jones, Alessandro Anav, Spencer K. Liddicoat, and Reto Knutti

between CO 2 emissions and CO 2 concentration. A lack of understanding and observations of physical feedbacks reflected in model spread is indeed the main source of uncertainty in long-term climate projections (e.g., Hawkins and Sutton 2009 ). While the initial Planck response to an increase in atmospheric CO 2 is known, the cascade of feedbacks arising from the warming-induced changes in water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, snow, and ice is far from being completely understood ( Bony et al. 2006

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