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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

averages, respectively. Thus, local evaporation supplies the bulk of water vapor for precipitation, as noted by Minobe et al. (2008) for the annual mean. In winter, evaporation is large over the Florida Current and the western Gulf Stream proper, roughly collocated with the Gulf Stream rainband ( Figs. 6a and 6c ). To the east of 50°W, precipitation is somewhat larger than local evaporation ( Fig. 6e ) and is partly contributed by moisture transported from the Florida Current region associated with

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

maximum peak of the SHF and the LHF. There was stronger high-frequency variability that was less coherent between the sites during period II. The difference in the climatic conditions between KEO and JKEO are appreciable in the SST, the air temperature, the water vapor content, and the wind speed ( Fig. 4 ). The air temperature and the water vapor content have variabilities at time scales of several days ( Figs. 4b,c and 4f,g ). Each peak in these parameters of KEO was in good correspondence with that

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Max Suarez, and Randal Koster

moisture budget analysis reveals how precipitation responses over the United States are balanced by evaporation responses and changes in atmospheric transient and stationary moisture flux convergences, a technique that has been widely used in the past (e.g., Roads et al. 2002 ). The budget analysis is based on the vertical integral of the equation for atmospheric water vapor in pressure coordinates: where q is specific humidity, V is the three-dimensional wind in pressure coordinates, E is

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

correspond well with those regions of convergent motion, as one would expect if the sensible heat release drove the upward motion of the air in the atmospheric boundary layer ( Lindzen and Nigam 1987 ). Because this air is moist, resulting from the collocation of large latent heat release by the ocean, the convergent flow transports water vapor upward and could, under the right conditions, provide an agent for cloud formation and deeper convection in the atmosphere ( Minobe et al. 2008 ). Overall, the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

specific humidity, t the time, p the pressure, V the horizontal velocity, q l the cloud water content, E the surface evaporation, P C the cumulus precipitation, and P L the stratiform precipitation. The analysis is carried out at the composite reference point where cumulus precipitation commences at T = 0 h. Figure 9 shows the time series of CAPE, ∂CAPE/∂ t , and the terms of the moisture budget Eq. (1) for JJA in CNTL and SMTH. CAPE starts to increase at T = 0 h, and ∂CAPE/∂ t

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

region around Japan and the KOE region, owing to the frequent and sometimes persistent outbreaks of dry, cold continental air onto the relatively warm ocean. Under the prevailing monsoonal airflow in winter, SHF was strongest over the Sea of Japan, the zonally elongated region along the Kuroshio south of Japan and the KE, and the mixed water region between the KE and OE ( Fig. 2a ). In the corresponding distribution of LHF ( Fig. 3a ), the peak over the Sea of Japan was weaker, while another peak

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