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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

evaporation rate over the tropics ( Fig. 9 , green and red lines, respectively) due to the increase in saturated water vapor pressure at the surface. The 2-K increase in SST leads to a net increase of the evaporation rate ( E ). This can be easily explained considering that E is proportional to the difference between saturated water vapor at the surface ( e s ) and water vapor pressure of the lower tropospheric layers ( e a ), and that e s depends on surface temperature following an exponential law

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Suzana J. Camargo, Michael K. Tippett, Adam H. Sobel, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Ming Zhao

Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-40) and National Centers for Environmental Protection (NCEP)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, as well as retrievals of column water vapor from satellite passive microwave observations. The regression methodology is objective and provides a framework for the selection of the climate variables to be used in the index. This method led us to select four environmental variables for the index similar but not identical

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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

intensity because of an increase in surface relative humidity and a slight increase of tropospheric stability (e.g., Sugi and Yoshimura 2004 ; Yoshimura and Sugi 2005 ; Held and Zhao 2011 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ). The +2K and 2×CO 2 +2K simulations both have higher rainfall than in the Present Day one, which is due to the increased SST that leads to higher air temperatures, higher water vapor content, and increased rainfall ( Scoccimarro et al. 2014 ). Yoshimura and Sugi (2005) discuss the opposing

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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

instability. The greater instability is evidenced by changes in the profile of moist static energy, the vertical gradient of equivalent potential temperature, and the distribution of CAPE. As a consequence to the changes in atmospheric instability there is an increase in 1) low-level positive vorticity and convergence, 2) upward motion, and 3) low-level moisture flux convergence. These changes help the development of explicit-scale convection and subsequent large-scale condensation of water vapor, and

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