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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

was measured with 20 levels of E-type thermocouples sampled at 1 Hz at 0.25, 0.5, 1.25, 2.0, 2.75, 3.5, 4.25, 5.0, 5.75, and 6.5 m and every 1.5 m above this level up to 20 m. Fast response data for eddy correlation fluxes and mean winds were collected at seven levels by sonic anemometers for the three components of the wind and sonic (virtual) temperature, four levels of hygrometers for water vapor fluxes, and a single carbon dioxide analyzer. Components of the radiation budget were measured

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D. Marks, A. Winstral, G. Flerchinger, M. Reba, J. Pomeroy, T. Link, and K. Elder

height of 12.6 m). The micrometeorological system was operated at the site from mid-February to the end of June 2003. An EC system was also located in this uniform pine stand and operated during the same period. The EC system included a sonic anemometer (Campbell CSAT-3) to measure the three-dimensional (3D) wind vector ( u , υ , w ) and air temperature and an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (Licor LI-7500) to measure water vapor at 10 Hz. The EC system also included standard slow

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

SNTHERM, FASST also has a simple wind ablation capability ( Jordan et al. 1999 ), and it allows for water and vapor movement within the underlying soil, whereas SNTHERM only allows mass movement within the snow. FASST has incorporated a three-layer canopy and lower vegetation model, which can intercept precipitation as well as modify the meteorological forcing parameters ( Frankenstein and Koenig 2004b ). Unlike SNTHERM, FASST is a single-layer snow model and uses only an average snowpack density and

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Glen E. Liston, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Donald W. Cline, and Kelly Elder

every 5 min to 3 h; 2) hourly surface aviation observations; 3) Doppler radar volume scans every 6–10 min; 4) wind and temperature radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) profiles from the NOAA Demonstration Profiler Network every 6–60 min; 5) satellite visible data every 15–30 min; 6) multispectral image and sounding radiance data every 60 min; 7) global positioning system (GPS) total precipitable water vapor determined from signal delay; and 8) automated aircraft observations. LAPS, like many

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

system (RASS) profiles from the NOAA Demonstration Profiler Network every 6–60 min, 5) satellite visible data every 15–30 min, 6) multispectral image and sounding radiance data every 60 min, 7) global positioning system (GPS) total precipitable water vapor determined from signal delay, and 8) automated aircraft observations. The resulting LAPS outputs include spatially and temporally continuous atmospheric state variables over the analysis domain ( Liston et al. 2008 ). Each 5 × 5 group of LAPS grid

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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

the value of 7 × 10 −7 ). The value of effective diffusion coefficient for water vapor in snow D eos at 1000 hPa and 0°C is 0.92 × 10 −4 (m 2 s −1 ), and the value of variation of saturation vapor pressure with temperature relative to phase C kT (kg m −2 K −1 ) can be calculated by Eq. (20) in Jordan (1991) . Note that d in (2) is expressed in meters. When implementing (2) in VIC, we approximated the absolute vertical thermal gradient ∂ T s /∂ z by | T s − T g |/Δ z , where T g

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