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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

Albrecht (2018, manuscript submitted to Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. ) and are only described briefly here. In addition to measurements of the atmospheric state variables (temperature, pressure, water vapor, and winds including high-frequency turbulent components at 20 Hz), other instruments used in this study include the following: An ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometer (UHSAS) measures aerosol particles with diameters from 60 to 1000 nm, with 100 size bins. Here, we use only the most reliable

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M. Christian Schwartz, Virendra P. Ghate, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Maria P. Cadeddu, Jothiram Vivekanandan, Scott M. Ellis, Pei Tsai, Edwin W. Eloranta, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

and deepening of the marine boundary layer, in which turbulence entrains free-tropospheric air through the MBL’s top ( Bretherton and Wyant 1997 ; Sandu and Stevens 2011 ). Other proposed mechanisms that influence the characteristics of the transition, as opposed to the occurrence of the transition itself, include the precipitation flux within the MBL, changes in the large-scale subsidence, diurnal variations in the warming of the MBL clouds, changes in the water vapor above the MBL, and changes

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Jothiram Vivekanandan, Virendra P. Ghate, Jorgen B. Jensen, Scott M. Ellis, and M. Christian Schwartz

.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<0777:ATFAOC>2.0.CO;2 O’Connor , E. J. , R. J. Hogan , and A. J. Illingworth , 2005 : Retrieving stratocumulus drizzle parameters using Doppler radar and lidar . J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 14 – 27 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM-2181.1 . 10.1175/JAM-2181.1 Pazmany , A. L. , 2007 : A compact 183-GHz radiometer for water vapor and liquid water sensing . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 45 , 2202 – 2206 , https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.888104 . 10.1109/TGRS.2006.888104 Pitari , G. , G

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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

clouds: Time scales and spatial variability . J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 952 – 967 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3665.1 . 10.1175/JAS3665.1 Korolev , A. V. , and I. P. Mazin , 2003 : Supersaturation of water vapor in clouds . J. Atmos. Sci. , 60 , 2957 – 2974 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2957:SOWVIC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2957:SOWVIC>2.0.CO;2 Lee , S.-S. , G. Feingold , and P. Y. Chuang , 2012 : Effect of aerosol on cloud–environment interactions in

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. ). A special wing pod was developed for mounting the HCR onto the GV ( Fig. 2 ). The pod design allowed a steerable reflector to extend ahead of the wing to allow for sampling both below and above the aircraft. The reflector was also actively controlled to minimize pointing errors caused by pitch variations on the GV ( Vivekanandan et al. 2015 ). Operating at 94-GHz frequency, the HCR suffers from small attenuation caused by absorption by water vapor and oxygen. Corrections

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

a more in-depth definition). In a few cases where the liquid water content was unavailable due to instrumentation issues, only water vapor is used. This has a very minor effect on the decoupling estimates as the vast majority of MBL atmospheric water is vapor. Subsidence is calculated from ERA5 as follows: for each trajectory in a case, the reanalysis inversion layer is estimated. A time series of subsidence between outbound and return sampling is extracted as the mean value height-averaged over

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

common time grid with a resolution of 0.5 s, corresponding to a horizontal resolution of 50–100 m, and share an altitude grid with a range resolution of 30 m ( Schwartz et al. 2019 ). Attenuation by water vapor and oxygen absorption is not yet corrected for [this was incorrectly reported within Albrecht et al. (2019) ], but only amounts to a correction of <1 dB Z km −1 for the upward-looking segments. A 4.5-dB calibration offset, identified using the ocean surface as a calibration target, is

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

components of wind stress estimated from H*wind fields ( Powell et al. 1998 ). The derivation of these velocity components is found in appendix B . These velocity components in addition to the HA term are estimated at each grid point within the cluster domain. This parametric velocity was tested for the case of Hurricane Lili (2002) in the Gulf of Mexico inside the Loop Current and in the background Gulf Common Water to assess its ability to capture the main upper-ocean current processes ( appendix B

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