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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

of low-level inflow starts to occur at a distance 5–6 times the half-width of the orographic barrier; 4) U c weakens rapidly from its upstream value as it approaches a 2D barrier; and 5) U p induced by blocking intensifies farther away from the stagnation point with a maximum near the edges of the barrier. Since over 60% of column-integrated water vapor resides within the lowest 2000 m over the eastern Pacific during the storm events analyzed in this study (not shown), U p induced by

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

patterns of 500-mb geopotential height (H500), for a larger domain, to reveal the features in large-scale atmospheric patterns. In the reanalysis ( Fig. 2a ), a difference low (smaller H500 in 1993 than in 1988) is located over the northern Great Plains and near the U.S.–Canada border and a difference high to its Southeast centered over Louisiana and Alabama. Thus, compared to 1988, anomalous southerly winds prevailed over the south (implying larger water vapor supply from the western Gulf of Mexico

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

description a. Governing equations 1) Water balance equation and parameterizations Liquid and vapor movement, as well as phase change, affects soil moisture in a frozen or unfrozen soil zone. Liquid water flow in frozen soil is considered to be analogous to that in unfrozen soil and can still be described by Darcy’s law ( Harlan 1973 ). Vapor flow in the water balance is not unimportant, especially when soil moisture can be transferred only through vapor flow in an unsaturated frozen soil during a long

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

for more complete context). For the most part, the main hydrological cycle components have been studied in isolation. Major efforts have been made to assemble, analyze, derive, and assess global datasets of water vapor ( Trenberth et al. 2005 ), cloud ( Dai et al. 1999b , 2006 ), precipitation (amount, frequency, intensity, type) ( Trenberth 1998 ; Dai et al. 1999a ; Dai 2001a ; Trenberth et al. 2003 ), evapotranspiration (evaporation plus transpiration from plants) ( Qian et al. 2006 ), soil

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

surface parameters. Other hydrometeorological variables, such as water vapor convergence and precipitable water, had to be calculated from the model output. This manuscript calculates these variables following the methods of Berbery and Ramusson (1999) and Roads et al. (1994) . The budget equation for the vertically integrated atmospheric water is The basin budget equation for the vertically integrated surface and subsurface water is Here, W , Q , E , P , S , and R stand for

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 487 – 503 . 10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0487:CAMTPG>2.0.CO;2 Kim, J. , and Kang H-S. , 2007 : The impact of the Sierra Nevada on low-level winds and water vapor transport. J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 790 – 804 . 10.1175/JHM599.1 Kogan, Y. , Kogan Z. N. , and Mechem D. B. , 2007 : Assessing the errors of cloud liquid water and precipitation flux retrievals in marine

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

.0.CO;2 Chou, M. D. , and Suarez M. J. , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. Tech. Rep. Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, Vol. 3, NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, 85 pp . Chou, M. D. , and Lee K-T. , 1996 : Parameterizations for the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and ozone. J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 1203 – 1208 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<1203:PFTAOS>2.0.CO;2 Daly, C. , Neilson R. P. , and Phillips

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

Yangtze River ( Fig. 8 ). Southern China is an important agricultural area with abundant rice fields. Heavy PRES is often accompanied by cold temperatures, which can rot rice seedlings and cause agricultural catastrophe. However, the formation mechanism is still unclear. Tian and Yasunari (1998) noticed that the PRES occurs because there is ample water vapor transported into the region by southerly winds from the SCS. They then proposed a mechanism of time lag in the spring warming between land and

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