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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

, which effectively simulate the storm dynamics, are compared with satellite-derived rainfall products. Several studies (e.g., Staelin 1976 ; Staelin and Chen 2000 ; Kongoli et al. 2007 ) have demonstrated the sensitivity of high-frequency passive microwaves (PMWs) in the water vapor band at 183.31 GHz for the retrieval of rainfall rates. More recent studies ( Ferraro et al. 2000 , 2005 ; Noh et al. 2006 ) went further by applying these frequencies to the detection of snowflakes in frozen clouds

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

or extension of irrigation facilities is inevitable to feed the burgeoning population in the coming decades ( Shiklomanov 2000 ). Water used for irrigation returns to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration or back to rivers as return flow, which can potentially affect the terrestrial water and energy balances ( Haddeland et al. 2006b ; Tang et al. 2007 ; Ozdogan et al. 2010 ) as well as the flow of water vapor into the atmosphere ( Boucher et al. 2004 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ; Puma and Cook

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

1. Introduction Water-use efficiency (WUE; defined as carbon gain at the cost of unit water loss) is a key parameter for analyzing the metabolism of terrestrial ecosystems—closely related to interactions between the carbon and water cycles at the leaf to watershed scales. For leaf-level WUE, the exchange of both CO 2 and water vapor is coregulated by stomatal aperture ( Cowan 1977 ; Farquhar and Sharkey 1982 ), whereas ecosystem-level WUE varies among plant functional types and environmental

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

). The impacts of these changes in climate on vegetation and hydrology will affect the availability of natural resources (i.e., water, biodiversity, and biomass) with implications for development. Although not related to human-induced climate change as in this study, an example from the region’s history is the collapse of the Mayan civilization in northern Mesoamerica, which has been explained by multidecadal droughts and their impact on natural resources and livelihoods ( Curtis et al. 1996 ; Haug

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

. Estimated values falling outside of the above-mentioned ranges were defined as anomalous and excluded from further statistical analysis. c. Data Time series of the insolation, downward longwave radiation, air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed were used as inputs to the model. The upward longwave radiation was converted to surface temperature using the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this conversion, a simplified correction for atmospheric water vapor developed by Kondo (2000) was employed

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 82 , 2415 – 2434 . Balsamo, G. , Mahfouf J.-F. , Bélair S. , and Deblonde G. , 2006 : A global root-zone soil moisture analysis using simulated L-band brightness temperature in preparation for the hydros satellite mission . J. Hydrometeor. , 7 , 1126 – 1146 . Balsamo, G. , Beljaars A. , Scipal K. , Viterbo P. , van den Hurk B. , Hirschi M. , and Betts A. K. , 2009 : A revised hydrology for the

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

technique was used to measure ET from a 40-m tower at both sites. Vertical and horizontal wind speeds and temperature were measured with a three-dimensional sonic anemometer (model: CSAT3, Campbell Scientific Inc., Logan, Utah) at 10 Hz for both sites. An open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA; model: LI-7500, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) was used for both sites to measure water vapor concentration. Half-hourly eddy covariances and the associated statistics were calculated online from 10-Hz raw data

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

. The CO 2 concentrations were automatically corrected by the software in the IRGA instrument using simultaneously measured air temperature, pressure, and water vapor content. Calibration of the IRGA was automatically carried out once a week throughout the experiment period. The accuracy of CO 2 concentration was 20 ppm, evaluated as the root-mean-square error (RMSE) in the range of the CO 2 concentration in the experiment using standard CO 2 gas. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was

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