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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

-dimensional mapping of SAL characteristics within an AEW. Ismail et al. (2010) showed lidar aerosol and water vapor measurements in multiple AEWs during the NAMMA field experiment ( Zipser et al. 2009 ), but flight patterns were not geared toward mapping the 3D structure of the waves, and measurements were typically obtained just along the southern boundary of the SAL. The set of north–south cross sections from HS3 provide a broader-scale mapping of the dust, wind, and thermodynamic structures of the SAL

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), and Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS). S-HIS (details in Table 1 ; Revercomb 2015 ) is an advanced version of the HIS ER-2 instrument ( Revercomb et al. 2003 ). Its noise levels are sufficiently low to allow cloud and surface properties to be derived from each individual field of view. Temperature and water vapor profiling can be performed on individual fields of view in the absence of significant

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

potential temperature θ , equivalent potential temperature θ E , and water vapor mixing ratio. The pseudoadiabatic CAPE without fusion and entrainment is also computed for each profile, assuming parcels lifted from 100 m ( Bogner et al. 2000 ; Molinari et al. 2012 ). Each dropsonde profile is interpolated every 5 hPa from 1000 to 100 hPa. All GH profiles have been quality controlled by staff at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) ( Young et al. 2016

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

development case and a nondevelopment case . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 91 – 111 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-018.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-12-018.1 Fritz , C. , and Z. Wang , 2014 : Water vapor budget in a developing tropical cyclone and its implication for tropical cyclone formation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 4321 – 4332 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0378.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0378.1 Gray , W. , 1968 : Global view of the origin of tropical disturbances and storms . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 96

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