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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

of the monsoon period from August to September. During this period, the water vapor content in the models continued to decrease, even though the buoy observed a near-constant water vapor content. The dry q a bias in the OAFlux analysis is inherited from the NWP products during the synthesis. At present, there are neither direct satellite observations nor sufficient ship reports to correct the q a bias in OAFlux. This q a bias, when combined with the strong wind speed (>10 m s −1 on average

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

scheme for the advection of water vapor and cloud water ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ). The parameterization of convection is based on the mass flux concept ( Tiedtke 1989 ) modified following Nordeng (1994) . The Morcrette (1991) radiation scheme is used with the insertion of greenhouse gases and a revised parameterization for water vapor and the optical properties of clouds. The vertical turbulent transfer of momentum, mass, water vapor, and cloud water is based on the similarity theory of Monin

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS 2.4; Valcke et al. 2000 ) coupling software package. No measures for flux adjustments are taken in the model. For the AGCM, a semi-Lagrangian transport method ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ) is used for the advection of cloud water and water vapor, while the parameterization of Tiedtke (1989) is used to represent convection and that of Morcrette (1991) is used for radiation. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 2° × 2° cosine (latitude) with an increased meridional

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

environmental errors (such as ionospheric or water vapor corrections to travel time). Along-track data are filtered with a low-pass filter and binned every 0.25° and every 1/36 of a year. Operationally, TPJ anomalies are defined as sea level deviations from a 9-yr (1993–2001) mean sea level, which removes the geoid error. Next, the along-track data is gridded spatially using an optimal interpolation technique that takes into account grid location and propagation speed in the sea level signal. The 1993

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

, and water vapor are based on the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory; and the radiation scheme is derived from Morcrette et al. (1998) . Major changes in the model include implicit coupling of the atmosphere to the land surface ( Schulz et al. 2001 ), advective transport ( Lin and Rood 1996 ), a prognostic–statistical scheme for cloud cover ( Tompkins 2002 ), and a rapid radiative-transfer model for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ). Model details may be found in Roeckner et al. (2003

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