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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

from CO 2 fluxes over the ocean that are not captured by the terrestrial land model; and S eddy represents the error from contributions of eddies unresolved in the model. The error components and assessment methods are described in detail below. 2.5.2.1. Biospheric CO 2 signal error S veg The first component of S veg is the error of the actual CO 2 mixing ratio measurements S meas . This includes the instrument uncertainty, the uncertainty added for water vapor correction when calculating

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

shown in laboratory ( Field et al. 1995 ; Brodribb et al. 2009 ), field ( Hungate et al. 2002 ; Ainsworth and Rogers 2007 ), and modeling studies ( Medlyn et al. 2001 ; Gopalakrishnan et al. 2011 ; Collatz et al. 1991 ; Boucher et al. 2009 ) to decrease with higher CO 2 concentrations. This effect has been labeled “CO 2 physiological forcing” ( Betts et al. 2007a ) and acts to decrease evapotranspiration, atmospheric water vapor, and latent cooling and increase surface temperatures ( Boucher

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

.6 and 0.85; the albedo decreases as snow ages. For snow-covered land areas in forest regions, the albedo is set constant to 0.2. The snow-free albedo is set to 0.15 and 0.28 for forest and forest-free areas, respectively ( Samuelsson et al. 2011 ). The root depth varies from around 1.5 m for open land to 2 m for forest ( Champeaux et al. 2005 ). Surface resistance depends on a vegetation-dependent minimum surface resistance, LAI, photosynthetically active radiation, water stress, vapor pressure

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

al. 1993 ) for water vapor (H 2 O). Then, the scattering effect due to atmospheric molecules and aerosols is modeled with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) computer code ( Vermote et al. 1994 ). The measured radiances are divided by solar irradiances above the atmosphere to obtain apparent reflectances, and finally the surface reflectances are derived from the apparent reflectances using the simulated atmospheric gaseous transmittances and the simulated

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

decrease in tropospheric air temperatures due to the reduced greenhouse gas effect of water vapor in the atmosphere ( Xu et al. 2015 ). Consequently, LULCC results in an overall decrease in 850-hPa air temperatures in Europe, East Asia, North America, and the adjacent ocean areas ( Figure 5 ). Conversely, changes in the LST are determined by the relative importance of the two factors that have opposing effects on the LST change: LULCC-induced increases in the land surface albedo tend to cool the land

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900230 . Yu , S. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Attribution of the United States “warming hole”: Aerosol indirect effect and precipitable water vapor . Sci. Rep. , 4 , 6929 , doi: 10.1038/srep06929 . Zhang , X. , L. A. Vincent , W. D. Hogg , and A. Niitsoo , 2000 : Temperature and precipitation trends in Canada during the 20th century . Atmos.–Ocean , 38 , 395 – 429 , doi: 10.1080/07055900.2000.9649654 .

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