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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

simulation Ensemble simulations show a shallow cool layer at the surface and southerly winds above. Southerly warm-air advection above the surface overran the cold pool and strengthened the inversion. Some light precipitation moistened the boundary layer and preceded observations of dense fog. The WRF ensemble forecast simulated key aspects of the dense fog event. Figure 3 shows ensemble-mean 3-hourly profiles of temperature over KSLC, and Fig. 4 shows the model lowest-layer ensemble-mean water vapor

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

–Nevada border are annotated for reference. In SM-Albedo, we also reduced the saturation vapor pressure over the playa because the very high salinity of the playa has a strong impact on the evaporation rate and LE, but this effect is not parameterized in the Noah LSM. Salinity reduces the osmotic potential at the soil surface and increases the resistance to water vapor diffusion as a result of the occasional formation of a salt crust ( Fujimaki et al. 2006 ). The complex parameterizations that capture these

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

suite of other sensors. Some instruments were relocated and additional instrumentation was brought in periodically as deemed necessary. The towers measured some or all of the following: 1) T, RH, wind velocities, momentum, and sensible heat fluxes (using 3D sonics and fine-wire thermocouples, located at 2, 5, 10, and 20 m and operating at 20 Hz); 2) CO 2 and water vapor concentration (open-path infrared gas analyzers) and fine-structure temperature profiles (∼25 thermocouples up to 10 m, with

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