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Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

40, …, M100) as well as LOW and HIGH cases (see Table 1 ) were performed using the Kain–Fritsch cumulus and the Kessler microphysics parameterization schemes. For the dry case (DRY) where water vapor was retained as a tracer in the model ( Mirzaei et al. 2014 ), the cumulus and microphysics parameterization were turned off. The vertical profile of relative humidity after the initialization carried out by the WRF for the M85 has been shown in Fig. 1b . The high values of relative humidity

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

transition from westerly to easterly winds with important consequences for the propagation and drag of planetary and synoptic waves ( Scaife et al. 2002 ). They also contribute to the forcing of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and thus to the transport of trace gases like ozone and water vapor ( Alexander and Rosenlof 1996 ). Convectively generated GWs are important for generating the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropics ( Labitzke 2005 ; Marshall and Scaife 2009 ), which has a strong influence

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

fields like wind, pressure, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and the Brunt–Väisälä frequency are stored every 5 min for the inner domain to obtain a temporal resolution similar to the lidar raw data. This high-resolution output enables the combination and comparison of WRF simulations with lidar, aircraft, and radiosonde data. The numerical WRF Model is commonly used for many different atmospheric phenomena [e.g., polar lows ( Wagner et al. 2011 ), tropical cyclones ( Davis et al. 2008

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Christoph Zülicke, Erich Becker, Vivien Matthias, Dieter H. W. Peters, Hauke Schmidt, Han-Li Liu, Laura de la Torre Ramos, and Daniel M. Mitchell

. J. Climate , 26 , 2668 – 2682 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00030.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00030.1 Orsolini , Y. J. , J. Urban , D. P. Murtagh , S. Lossow , and V. Limpasuvan , 2010 : Descent from the polar mesosphere and anomalously high stratopause observed in 8 years of water vapor and temperature satellite observations by the Odin sub-millimeter radiometer . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D12305 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013501 . 10.1029/2009JD013501 Pedatella , N

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