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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

is calculated as where n is a unit vector perpendicular to γ with outward direction and Q is the vertically integrated water vapor flux vector given by where q is specific humidity, V is the vector wind velocity, p is pressure, and g is gravity. To study how the variability of the moisture fluxes over the IAS affects the surrounding areas, we consider γ to enclose the IAS region and divide it into four segments as shown in Fig. 1 . The four boundary segments separate the IAS from

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Christopher J. Watts, Russell L. Scott, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Julio C. Rodriguez, John H. Prueger, William P. Kustas, and Michael Douglas

-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) campaign over grassland and shrubland in the San Pedro catchment in 1997–98 ( Chehbouni et al. 2000 ). Neither of these campaigns was specifically designed to study the monsoon system. The intensive observation period (IOP) for NAME took place in the period July–September 2004 and a small network of flux stations ( Fig. 1 ) were set up in the core monsoon region in order to study the exchange of radiation, heat, and water vapor between the surface and the atmosphere

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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

than 10 W m −2 ) in the daily average in summer. We suspect that the larger differences shown here are a result of both some bias in the temperature range algorithm, and some bias related to the underestimation of atmospheric attenuation in the Eta Model, perhaps as a result of biases in cloud cover and/or water vapor simulation in the coupled model. Figure 5 shows differences in net radiation (a derived variable in both VIC and NARR). The major differences between VIC and NARR occur in spring

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J. Craig Collier and Guang J. Zhang

, the Gulf of California provides most of the water vapor ( Badan-Dangon et al. 1991 ; Schmitz and Mullen 1996 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ), while the Gulf of Mexico provides water vapor at upper levels ( Schmitz and Mullen 1996 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ). The region most influenced by the monsoon appears to be the western slopes and foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), where the rainfall change from June to July is largest ( Douglas et al. 1993 ). However, the monsoon is more than just a

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

/EOL) (see section 3 ). This will ensure that the datasets resulting from NAME are widely available and archived in a manner that is most useful for future studies. 3. NAME data During the NAME 2004 field campaign, data were gathered from more than 20 different types of instrument platforms, including surface meteorological stations, radars, aircraft, research vessels, satellites, wind profilers, rawinsondes, pibals, rain gauge networks, soil moisture sensors, and GPS-integrated water vapor retrieval

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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

Depression Blas to the south and southwest of the Altair and an upper-level trough to the northeast of the Gulf of California (GoC) ( Johnson et al. 2007 ). Outflow from Blas helped delay the northward migration of the climatological westerly jet, but after 17 July the upper-level winds at the location of the Altair were easterly and stayed that way, signifying an established summer monsoon. The sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor path (WVP) fields at the onset of the ship cruise are shown

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

generation. Two measurable features of the feedback mechanism are that an increase in soil moisture leads to a decrease in surface temperature and an increase in water vapor in the lower atmosphere. A soil moisture–vegetation–rainfall feedback mechanism has been subsequently investigated in the North American monsoon system through modeling studies (e.g., Small 2001 ; Xu et al. 2004b ; Matsui et al. 2005 ). Nevertheless, the observations necessary to understand the interaction of atmospheric

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

typhoons and a primary source of tradewind disturbances. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Rep. 67-12, 103 pp. [Available from HIG, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822.] . Saleeby , S. M. , and W. R. Cotton , 2004 : Simulations of the North American monsoon system. Part I: Model analysis of the 1993 monsoon season. J. Climate , 17 , 1997 – 2018 . Schmitz , J. T. , and S. L. Mullen , 1996 : Water vapor transport associated with the summertime North American monsoon as depicted by ECMWF

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Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 343 – 360 . Randall , D. A. , and D. A. Dazlich , and Harshvardhan , 1991 : Diurnal variability of the hydrological cycle in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci. , 48 , 40 – 62 . Rasmusson , E. M. , 1967 : Atmospheric water vapor transport and the water balance of North America: Part I. Characteristics of the water vapor flux field. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 95 , 403 – 426 . Reynolds , R. W. , N. A. Rayner , T. M. Smith , D. C. Stokes , and W

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Kingtse C. Mo, Eric Rogers, Wesley Ebisuzaki, R. Wayne Higgins, J. Woollen, and M. L. Carrera

-level dropwinsondes ( Fig. 2f ). The observational data processing procedures are posted online ( Keyser 2005 ). GDAS and EDAS also used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-15 ( NOAA-15 ) and NOAA-16 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) 1b radiance and NOAA-15 , NOAA-16 , and NOAA-17 AMSU-B 1b radiances. In addition, EDAS used Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) winds/precipitable water retrievals and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) water vapor cloud

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