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Brian J. Carroll, Belay B. Demoz, David D. Turner, and Ruben Delgado

reanalysis datasets reveal the LLJ patterns already discussed but are limited in their ability to resolve some important details of the spatiotemporal evolution of the LLJ throughout its domain (e.g., Whiteman et al. 1997 ; Song et al. 2005 ; Walters et al. 2008 , 2014 ). Targeted observations have been utilized over the years to improve our understanding of LLJs, MCSs, NCI, and their interplay. Wind, water vapor, and elastic backscatter lidars have been some of the key tools in these advanced

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Kristy J. Weber, David D. Turner, and Scott M. Spuler

Laboratory, accessed 29 April 2016 , doi: 10.5065/D6SJ1HR1 . UCAR/NCAR EOL , 2016b : NCAR/EOL water vapor DIAL, QC data in netCDF, version 1.0. UCAR/NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory, accessed 29 April 2016 , doi: 10.5065/D65B00NF . Van Baelen, J. , Reverdy M. , Tridon F. , Labbouz L. , Dick G. , Bender M. , and Hagen M. , 2011 : On the relationship between water vapour field evolution and the life cycle of precipitation systems . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 204 – 223 , doi: 10

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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

). The location of Kansas City and a sounding site (i.e., TOP) are marked in (a). The hourly simulated rain rates in (d) are coarsened from 1- to 4-km grid spacing by taking the mean of the 4 × 4 grids to be consistent with stage IV data. Fig . 4. (a) Temporal evolution of domain-averaged precipitation rate from observation (stage IV) and simulations, and vertical profiles of (b) temperature, (c) water vapor mixing ratio, and (d) relative humidity (RH) from the sounding at 0000 UTC 2 Jul at the TOP

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David M. Loveless, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Steven A. Ackerman, and Wayne F. Feltz

solitary wave will oscillate to a maximum and return to the preexisting level or value ( Christie et al. 1978 ; Christie 1989 ; Knupp 2006 ). The lifting and mixing processes associated with bore passages have been observed to weaken the capping inversion and destabilize the boundary layer ( Koch et al. 1991 , 2008 ; Coleman and Knupp 2011 ). Coleman and Knupp (2011) used temperature and water vapor retrievals from a microwave profiling radiometer to make time series of convective available

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W. G. Blumberg, T. J. Wagner, D. D. Turner, and J. Correia Jr.

to water vapor . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 15761 – 15785 , doi: 10.1029/92JD01419 . 10.1029/92JD01419 Di Natale , G. , L. Palchetti , G. Bianchini , and M. Del Guasta , 2017 : Simultaneous retrieval of water vapour, temperature and cirrus clouds properties from measurements of far infrared spectral radiance over the Antarctic Plateau . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 10 , 825 – 837 , doi: 10.5194/amt-10-825-2017 . 10.5194/amt-10-825-2017 Doswell , C. A. , and E. N. Rasmussen , 1994

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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, Kevin R. Haghi, and David B. Parsons

). At 500 hPa ( Fig. 2a ), the region of Kansas and Nebraska was generally characterized by westerly flow of ~10–15 m s −1 . There was also a mesoscale maximum in the 500-hPa wind speed in southwest Nebraska ( Fig. 2a ) that may have played a role in convection initiation around this time by increasing cyclonic vorticity advection aloft. At 700 hPa, there was a maximum in water vapor mixing ratio greater than ~9 g kg −1 in southwestern Nebraska and western Kansas ( Fig. 2b ). The wind barbs

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Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

Koch et al. (2008b) , who used an airborne differential absorption lidar to profile water vapor across a bore/soliton. An aircraft can also detail the vertical parcel displacements evident from aerosol layers and make in situ measurements. This allows analysis of wave phase relationships and of horizontal density differences across boundaries, a key parameter to understanding bore behavior ( Rottman and Simpson 1989 ). This approach, which was utilized in Mueller et al. (2017) , is used in this

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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

. 1997 ), designed to measure water vapor and aerosols along their flight transects, and the Wyoming King Air with a compact Raman lidar. Time–height sections from the ground-based upward pointing profilers captured horizontal/vertical motion, moisture, and temperature. Pre- and postbore environments were sampled with atmospheric soundings and the Kansas Mesonet recorded changes in temperature, pressure, and winds. It required a lot of planning and a little luck, but the 10–11 July 2015 IOP and other

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Dana Mueller, Bart Geerts, Zhien Wang, Min Deng, and Coltin Grasmick

Wyoming King Air (UWKA), which employed two lidars: the downward-pointing Compact Raman lidar (CRL) and the upward-pointing Wyoming Cloud lidar (WCL). The CRL is a multichannel rotational Raman lidar that utilizes a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser at ~355-nm wavelength ( Liu et al. 2014 ). In its original design, it had N 2 and H 2 O vibrational–rotational Raman channels for water vapor measurements, and two elastic channels for aerosol and cloud measurements (e.g., Bergmaier et al. 2014 ). In 2015

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Joshua G. Gebauer, Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Petra Klein

wind, temperature, and water vapor using both in situ and remote sensing observing platforms. During the field campaign, no-boundary CI with characteristics similar to those identified by Reif and Bluestein (2017) occurred on three nights: 1 June, 2 June, and 5 July 2015. On 1 and 2 June 2015, the CI did occur near previous convection, so it may not have met pristine CI criteria used by Reif and Bluestein (2017) , but the orientation, position relative to the LLJ, and timing of the CI is similar

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