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Samson M. Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Charlotte Demott, Bryce Harrop, Jian Lu, and Min-Seop Ahn

model precipitation biases, we first examine the processes behind the observed relationship between precipitation and precipitable water. Consider the vertically integrated moisture budget equation: (1) ∂ ( pw ) ∂ t = E − P − 1 g ∫ pt ps ∇ ⋅ ( v q ) dp , where (2) pw = 1 g ∫ pt ps q d p is the column-integrated water vapor or precipitable water; E and P are evaporation and precipitation respectively, while ps and pt are the pressures at the surface and top of the atmosphere, respectively. To

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Suzana J. Camargo, Claudia F. Giulivi, Adam H. Sobel, Allison A. Wing, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Jeffrey D. O. Strong, Anthony D. Del Genio, Maxwell Kelley, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

; Camargo et al. 2014 ) and the ventilation index ( Tang and Emanuel 2012b , a ), as well one genesis index combining several fields together. All these variables were computed from monthly-mean fields in models and observations. We only show a subset of the analyzed fields here. They are as follows: Vertical shear: magnitude of the vertical wind shear between 200 and 850 hPa Relative humidity at 600 hPa Column relative humidity: ratio of the column integrated water vapor path and the column saturated

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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

1. Introduction Realistic representation of the hydrologic cycle and related extremes in Earth system models has important societal benefits. As Earth continues to warm, hydrological cycle changes such as “the wet get wetter and the dry get drier” ( Held and Soden 2006 ; Trenberth 2011 ) have significant implications for infrastructure planning and management of water resources. More importantly, the increased water vapor supply to storms under a warmer climate and the additional latent heat

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Yi-Hung Kuo, Kathleen A. Schiro, and J. David Neelin

field ( Tao and Moncrieff 2009 ; Yano et al. 2012 ; Moncrieff et al. 2017 ). Bretherton et al. (2004) documented an empirical relationship between the column relative humidity (CRH) and precipitation over tropical oceans at daily and monthly time scales in SSM/I satellite retrievals (see also Rushley et al. 2018 ). Based on the analysis of the same satellite observations at fast time scales, Peters and Neelin (2006) noted a sharp increase in precipitation as the column-integrated water vapor

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

the best of our knowledge, the first study to examine the water vapor budget of SMDs was Yoon and Chen (2005) . They found that the leading balance in SMDs involves import of moisture through convergence and loss of moisture through condensation and precipitation. Their study, however, only considered the Eulerian temporal tendency in moisture over a limited domain near the center of the vortex. Thus, their study does not take into account the propagation of the moisture anomalies. However

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

precipitating regimes for the tropics, where deep convection dominates precipitation production. A basic set of diagnostics is shown for precipitation dependence on measures of the water vapor–temperature environment, evaluated at short time scales comparable to those at which parameterized convection acts ( Neelin et al. 2009 ; Schiro et al. 2016 ). Observations (Kuo et al. 2018) and an example model (GFDL) are shown with, left to right, panels for precipitation conditionally averaged as a function of

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

underestimation of transpiration ( Lian et al. 2018 ). Chang et al. (2018) also implicate the role of model deficiencies in (or absence of) the representation of lateral water flow and water vapor diffusion within the soil, while Maxwell and Condon (2016) also point out the necessary role of groundwater flow, generally not accounted for in land models, for sustaining higher transpiration fractions. Further work will likely identify additional sources of land model biases. Some studies have described

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

1. Introduction Conditional instability of the environment lies at the basis of moist convection, but quantifying the environmental influence on convection is a nontrivial exercise. An increase in tropospheric water vapor generally favors tropical convection ( Sherwood 1999 ; Redelsperger et al. 2002 ; Chaboureau et al. 2004 ; Sherwood et al. 2004 ; Jensen and Del Genio 2006 ; Myoung and Nielsen-Gammon 2010 ; Waite and Khouider 2010 ), but water vapor is only one among several influencing

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

where C PD , R D , and p D are the specific heat, gas constant, and partial pressure of dry air respectively; C PV , R V , and p V are the specific heat, gas constant, and partial pressure of water vapor, respectively; r V is the water vapor mixing ratio; T is air temperature; T R is the reference temperature of 273.15 K; p R is the reference pressure (1000 hPa) for dry air; e SF = 611 Pa; and L V = 2.5 × 10 6 J kg −1 is the enthalpy of vaporization. The vertically integrated

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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

radiation in observations and evapotranspiration schemes. The diurnal magnitude of turbulent heat fluxes is related to the partitioning into sensible and latent fluxes, which is controlled by many processes, especially the redistribution of water ( Dirmeyer et al. 2018 ). The phase lag of the turbulent heat fluxes to solar radiation is influenced by diurnal heat storage changes in the land–atmosphere system ( Renner et al. 2019b ). Although the absorption of solar radiation at the surface comprises a

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