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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Russ S. Schumacher, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

, a key ingredient for deep convection initiation east of the Andes ( Salio et al. 2007 ; Insel et al. 2010 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Rasmussen and Houze 2011 , 2016 ; Jones 2019 ). Though this moisture can reach depths up to 700 hPa, it tends to maximize around 850 hPa ( Vera et al. 2006 ; Oliveira et al. 2018 ; Piersante et al. 2021 ). Figures 6 and 7 present the evolution of 850-hPa wind and integrated water vapor transport 1 composite anomalies, respectively, where shading

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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

particular days illustrate, for example, that the pre-CI water vapor mixing ratio profiles in the lower free troposphere could vary by as much as 3–5 g kg −1 over ~20-km distances ( Fig. 3 ). Such variances may be partly a result of mesoscale environmental heterogeneity, but also a result of the free-tropospheric moistening by detrainment of cumulus (evident by relatively moist profiles nearest to the SDC ridgeline, where congestus most typically formed; red profiles in ( Fig. 3 ). Fig . 3. Examples of

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Russ S. Schumacher, Deanna A. Hence, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Martin Rugna, Adam C. Varble, and Nathan R. Kelly

2018 to 30 April 2019, with observations primarily at an observing site in the SDC. Among the other types of in situ and remote sensing observations collected during these campaigns was a large number of balloon-borne radiosondes to observe the vertical profile of temperature, water vapor, and winds ( Fig. 2 ). This study examines the unprecedented sounding dataset collected at fixed and mobile sites. Specifically, this is both the largest collection of soundings ever for the region, and also the

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

. Convective storms produce most of the austral summer precipitation in La Plata River basin ( Rasmussen et al. 2016 ). This study performs a hydrometeorological analysis, flash flood observations, and modeling of an extreme MCS event that occurred during RELAMPAGO. This event, which took place on 27 November 2018, was one of the most extreme hydrometeorological events observed during the IOP. Based on records of inflow water volume at Rio Tercero Dam ( Fig. 1c ), this event had a return period of 1 in 25

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

, we present an analysis of the terms of the water vapor conservation and thermodynamic equations. The water vapor conservation equation in pressure coordinates can be expressed as: (1) ∂ q ∂ t = − V h ⋅ ∇ p q − ω ∂ q ∂ p + S q , where q is the specific humidity, V h is the horizontal wind vector, and ω is the vertical velocity in pressure coordinates. The first two terms of the rhs of the equation correspond to the horizontal and vertical moisture advection. The third term in the rhs

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

“outflow boundaries”) typically display increases of nonhydrostatic pressure and resultant upward-directed perturbation pressure gradient forces, inducing ascent and the potential for secondary CI (e.g., Bryan and Rotunno 2014 ). Furthermore, increases in low-level vertical wind shear can favor wider updrafts which may process more water vapor and result in stronger/wider downdrafts and colder cold pools (e.g., Trapp et al. 2017 ; Warren et al. 2017 ; Nielsen and Schumacher 2018 ; Marion and Trapp

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