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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

passive microwave observations to cloud ice. These TRMM-based condensed water products are coupled with temperature, humidity, and ozone profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) that have been further constrained by TMI-based sea surface temperature and column-integrated water vapor estimates from remote sensing systems ( Wentz 1997 ; Wentz et al. 2000 ). The concentrations of less variable gases, such as carbon dioxide, are assumed to

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

. However, the gridded analysis with pibal data better represents the pibal wind profiles. c. Computation of heat and moisture budgets and radiative heating rates The apparent heat source and moisture sink ( Yanai et al. 1973 ) are defined by where s = c p T + gz is the dry static energy, q is the water vapor mixing ratio, c is the condensation rate, e is the evaporation rate, L is the latent heat of vaporization, c p is the specific heat of dry air, Q R is the radiative heating rate

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

of lookup tables replaces traditional parameterizations ( Pielke et al. 2006 , 2007 ). 2. Approach In diagnostic studies ( Yanai et al. 1973 ; Yanai and Johnson 1993 ), it is customary to define the apparent heat source Q 1 of a large-scale system by averaging horizontally the thermodynamic and water vapor equations: where θ is the potential temperature, v the horizontal velocity, w the vertical velocity, π = ( p / P 00 ) R / C p the nondimensional pressure, p the pressure, P 00

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

dominated by phase changes between water vapor and small liquid or frozen cloud-sized particles. It consists of the condensation of cloud droplets, evaporation of cloud droplets and raindrops, freezing of cloud droplets and raindrops, melting of snow and graupel/hail, and the deposition and sublimation of ice particles. In addition, eddy heat flux convergence from cloud motions can also redistribute the heating or cooling vertically and horizontally. LH cannot be measured directly with current

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

-to-mid troposphere because of condensation–deposition of water vapor in moist updrafts. In stratiform regions, heating profiles generally have a positive maximum in the upper troposphere and a negative minimum due to evaporation of precipitation in the lower troposphere. In addition to the convective and stratiform categories, PR precipitation profiles are separated by the echo top of the precipitation column, defined as the greatest altitude at which the PR-observed reflectivity exceeds the 17-dB Z minimum

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

Mu (2005) suggest that shallow convection helps to precondition the atmosphere for MJO by moistening the lower troposphere. Yet, so far there is no strong observational evidence directly implicating the importance of low-level heating and moistening in the formation of MJO. This is partially due to the lack of vertical resolution in global observations of rainfall, cloudiness, and water vapor. Furthermore, cumulus parameterization in general circulation models (GCMs) and diagnostic calculations

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

1. Introduction The large-scale state of the tropical atmosphere as characterized by low-level convergence and advective cooling and moistening plays an important role in destabilizing the atmospheric structure, initiating and maintaining deep convection. On the other hand, latent heating released from tropical convective systems is a major energy source for the large-scale circulation. By releasing latent heat and vertically redistributing sensible heat and water vapor, cumulus clouds modify

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