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  • Water vapor x
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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

cycle balance At any given time, the total amount of water vapor in the atmospheric column is represented by the precipitable water: where q is the specific humidity and π represents the atmospheric mass, which is the surface pressure divided by gravity: π = p s / g . The tendency of precipitable water between successive model output times may be calculated via Precipitable water tendency has both a natural and a model component, the latter a result of model biases, spinup, and reinitializing

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J. Li, S. Sorooshian, W. Higgins, X. Gao, B. Imam, and K. Hsu

500 m. These results indicate that model resolution could modulate the features of surface turbulent fluxes and then affect the convection development (e.g., latent heating processes not only transport the energy to the atmosphere but also water vapor). The results ( Fig. 7 ) and rainfall diurnal variations ( Figs. 2  – 6 ) suggest that higher resolution can better represent the distributions of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The above analysis was intended to provide an overview of the

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Song Yang, Kwo-Sen Kuo, and Eric A. Smith

properly simulate the narrowly confined mass and water vapor convergence processes leading to convection, or to meaningfully resolve the vertical overturning of cloud systems that actually produce convective and stratiform precipitation fallout. Moreover, they do not have any type of meaningful microphysical parameterizations in regards to the initiation, growth, loss, phase change, and vertical motion of either nonprecipitating or precipitating hydrometeors. Thus, it is appropriate that the type of

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Tianjun Zhou, Rucong Yu, Haoming Chen, Aiguo Dai, and Yang Pan

: Simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon by using a variable resolution atmospheric GCM. Climate Dyn. , 19 , 167 – 180 . Zhou , T-J. , and R-C. Yu , 2005 : Atmospheric water vapor transport associated with typical anomalous summer rainfall patterns in China. J. Geophys. Res. , 110 . D08104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005413 . Fig . 1. Surface elevation (shaded, m) over China, together with locations of the 626 rain gauge stations (black dots) used in this study. Five subregions are outlined for

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Munehisa K. Yamamoto, Fumie A. Furuzawa, Atsushi Higuchi, and Kenji Nakamura

014113 . Tian , B. , B. J. Soden , and X. Wu , 2004 : Diurnal cycle of convection, clouds, and water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere: Satellite versus a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. , 109 . D10101, doi:10.1029/2003JD004117 . Yang , G-Y. , and J. Slingo , 2001 : The diurnal cycle in the tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 784 – 801 . Yang , S. , and E. A. Smith , 2006 : Mechanisms for diurnal variability of global tropical rainfall observed from TRMM. J

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Arindam Chakraborty and T. N. Krishnamurti

prediction of cloud water content. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 104 , 677 – 690 . Sundqvist , H. , E. Berge , and J. E. Kristjnsson , 1989 : Condensation and cloud studies with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117 , 1641 – 1657 . Tian , B. , B. J. Soden , and X. Wu , 2004 : Diurnal cycle of convection, clouds, and water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere: Satellites versus a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. , 109 . D10101, doi

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Song Yang and Eric A. Smith

effectively suppresses daytime convection, leading to more nighttime rainfall. Daytime suppression results from clear regions experiencing less subsidence warming in response to ongoing radiative cooling because of enhanced daytime radiative heating due to water vapor insolation absorption, thus reducing the convergence into the convection zone and inhibiting daytime convective growth. Ruprecht and Gray (1976) and Gray and Jacobson (1977) first proposed this mechanism, later supported by Foltz and

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